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The Global Crisis, 1921-1941

The secretary of state of the Harding administration was
A. Charles Evans Hughes.
B. Charles Dawes.
C. Henry Cabot Lodge.
D. Henry Stimson.
E. Cordell Hull.

A. Charles Evans Hughes.

The Washington Conference of 1921
A. attempted to prevent a global naval arms race.
B. saw the Harding administration refuse to participate in it.
C. sought to expand the global markets of the United States.
D. ended as a diplomatic failure for the United States.
E. attempted to create a world court.

A. attempted to prevent a global naval arms race.

All of the following nations were signatories to the Five-Power Pact of 1922 EXCEPT
A. Britain.
B. Russia.
C. France.
D. Italy.
E. Japan.

B. Russia.

The Dawes Plan of 1924
A. called for the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments.
B. was designed to help England and France make their debt payments to the United States.
C. called for Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments.
D. called for both the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments, and Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

As part of his foreign policy, President Herbert Hoover moved to withdraw American troops from
A. Mexico.
B. Cuba.
C. Venezuela.
D. Colombia.
E. Haiti.

E. Haiti.

Which of the following statements about the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany is FALSE?
A. His rise was partially precipitated by ruinous inflation.
B. Hitler displayed a pathological anti-Semitism and a passionate militarism.
C. Hitler believed in the genetic superiority of the Aryan people.
D. Hitler argued in favor of extending German territory for the purpose of lebensraum.
E. Upon coming to power in 1933, Hitler called his new government "the Weimar Republic."

E. Upon coming to power in 1933, Hitler called his new government "the Weimar Republic."

President Franklin Roosevelt's sharpest foreign policy break with Herbert Hoover concerned
A. Latin America.
B. Europe.
C. Asia.
D. Russia.
E. Mexico.

B. Europe

In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt carried out international policies which
A. kept the United States on the gold standard. B. preserved the circular loan system of the Dawes Plan.
C. established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.
D. allowed American banks to make loans to nations in default to the United States.
E. further soured relations with Latin America.

C. established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.

President Franklin Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy"
A. expanded initiatives begun under Herbert Hoover.
B. was designed to keep the peace in western Europe.
C. limited the land purchases by U.S. companies in neighboring countries.
D. was abandoned by the United States at the start of World War II.
E. gave nations allied against fascism preferential loan rates.

A. expanded initiatives begun under Herbert Hoover.

The Neutrality Act of 1935
A. sought to protect America's international trade agreements.
B. prevented Americans from traveling on ships of warring nations.
C. did not prevent the United States from intervening when Italy invaded Ethiopia.
D. was passed by Congress with recent acts of Nazi aggression in mind.
E. included a mandatory arms embargo of both sides during any military conflict.

E. included a mandatory arms embargo of both sides during any military conflict.

In 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt's "quarantine" speech
A. saw the president call for further isolation from the nation's enemies.
B. warned Japan it faced a U.S. embargo if it continued to be aggressive.
C. saw Roosevelt challenge England and France to limit the aggression of Germany.
D. received a decidedly hostile response by the American people.
E. was given in response to the Japanese sinking of the Panay.

D. received a decidedly hostile response by the American people.

In 1938, the Anschluss
A. proclaimed a union between Germany and Austria.
B. caused an uproar in the United States.
C. was created at the Munich conference.
D. led France to put its military on alert.
E. came to be identified with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

A. proclaimed a union between Germany and Austria.

The Munich agreement of 1938
A. was the result of negotiations involving the League of Nations.
B. put most of Poland under German control.
C. ended further German aggression until World War II began.
D. was supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.
E. was signed by Joseph Stalin despite misgivings of German intent.

D. was supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.

Following the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt
A. declared that the United States would remain neutral.
B. declared the United States would be the "arsenal of democracy."
C. sent American military advisers to England. D. ordered a "preparedness" campaign much like Woodrow Wilson had in 1916.
E. was unsure whether a majority of Americans supported Germany.

A. declared that the United States would remain neutral.

The American ambassador to London who insisted in 1940 that the British plight was already hopeless was
A. Neville Chamberlain.
B. Joseph Kennedy.
C. Gerald Nye.
D. Burton Wheeler.
E. Wendell Willkie.

B. Joseph Kennedy.

In July 1940, opinion polls showed the clear majority of the American public
A. believed Germany posed a direct threat to the United States.
B. were strongly against any involvement by the United States in the war.
C. thought the United States should immediately declare war on Germany.
D. believed it would be a waste to aid England as that nation would soon fall to Germany.
E. believed Japan was a greater threat to the United States than the war in Europe.

A. believed Germany posed a direct threat to the United States.

The America First Committee
A. was a powerful lobby against U.S. involvement in the war.
B. was opposed by both major political parties. C. called for increased U.S. assistance to England without any actual intervention.
D. was made up largely of Democrats who favored diplomacy to end the war.
E. tried and failed to enlist the support of Charles Lindbergh.

A. was a powerful lobby against U.S. involvement in the war.

In 1940, the "lend-lease" plan
A. allowed the U.S. to loan weapons to England to be returned when the war was over.
B. saw England agree to allow jobless Americans to enlist in the British military.
C. saw England allow the construction of American military bases on British territory.
D. saw the U.S. lend funds to the Allies so they could lease war supplies from the U.S.
E. was extremely controversial and barely passed the Senate.

A. allowed the U.S. to loan weapons to England to be returned when the war was over.

The German sinking of the American ship Reuben James
A. triggered an American naval campaign against Germany.
B. led Congress to approve the arming of American merchant ships.
C. led Congress to approve American ships sailing into belligerent ports.
D. led Congress to approve both the arming of American merchant ships and the sailing of American ships into belligerent ports.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

The Tripartite Pact was a defensive alliance between
A. the United States, England, and Russia.
B. the United States, England, and France.
C. Japan, Germany, and Italy.
D. Japan, Germany, and Austria.
E. England, France, and Italy.

C. Japan, Germany, and Italy.

Which of the following statements regarding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is FALSE?
A. The State department assumed the Japanese would never attack American interests.
B. The American aircraft carriers escaped the attack.
C. Few American authorities believed Japan was capable of an attack on Pearl Harbor.
D. The Japanese suffered light losses in the attack.
E. More than 2,400 American soldiers and sailors died in the attack.

A. The State department assumed the Japanese would never attack American interests.

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