9000 B.C.E. The transition humans made from hunter/gather to settlers. Completely redefines human society. People are no longer migratory, but live in permanent villages. This allows for specialization, people have more time on their hands. Specialization leads to social classes and gender inequality. Happened in the Fertile Crescent.
Babylonian who reigned over Mesopotamia from 1792 to 1750 B.C.E. Centralized government and and initiated regular tax. He created Hammurabi's Laws which had high standards and stern punishments.
Sons of Amon (Sun God). Considered to be Gods on Earth, taking human form in Egypt. The are powerful from 3100 BC to 2660 BC.
A social class system, heavily applied in India. Organized people based on the careers of their family, does not allow for upward mobility. 1000 B.C.E. There are four main Varnas (major social classes) Beginning with Brahmins (Priests), Kshatriyas (Warriors), Vaishyas (Workers), Shudras (Landless peasents) and later, the Untouchables. BY 18th and 19th Century B.C.E. Caste system had expanded into tons of Jati (Sub-castes).
Mandate of Heaven
Heavenly powers granted specific people the right to govern. The ruler had many duties: govern conscientiously, to observe high standards of honor and justice, and to maintain order and harmony amongst him kingdom. If a ruler failed in his duties the mandate of heaven could be removed. Established with the Zhou Dynasty in 1122 B.C.E.
The first Chinese thinker who addressed political and social order. Real name: Kong Fuzi (551-479 B.C.E.) Name "Confucius" translates to "Master Philosopher Kong." His thought was fundamentally moral, ethical, and political in character. According to Confucius, Government Officials needed a strong sense of moral integrity, a capacity for wise and fair judgements, and ren. Ren: an attitude of kindness and benevolence, a sense of humanity. Qualities associated with ren: courteous, respectful, diligent, and loyal.
Rose from men who were active in Chinese political affairs during the late 4th century B.C.E. Most notable of them was Shang Yang (390 to 338 B.C.E.) Believed the foundation of a state's strength were agriculture and armed forces. Tried to send as many people as possible to these fields. Believed that along with education, strict laws and expectations should be upheld.
First appeared during 7th Century B.C.E, popularity increased under the great teacher Vardhamana Mahavira in the 6th Century. Taught about detachment from the world. Spent 12 years wandering through the Ganges living an ascetic life (Detachment from all sources of pleasure and indulgence). Believe in nonviolence to other souls. Extreme Monks even swept in front of them, filtered water, and wore masks to avoid harm to tiny souls surrounding them.
Siddharta Guatama (born 563 B.C.E.) grew unsatisfied with his comfortable life. He was ignorant of human suffering, death, and disease. When he was exposed to these elements of the human condition, he decided to withdraw from active life and pursue a holy life. Buddhist doctrine: all life contains suffering. Desire is the route of all suffering, the elimination of desire causes the elimination of suffering. Buddhism rejects luxury and calls followers to lead moderate lives seeking nirvana (salvation.)
Reigned from 521 to 486 B.C.E. Extended Persian Empire east and west, from India to western coast of Black Sea. By the late 6th century, Darius' Empire stretched some 3,000 kilometers and a population of 35 Million. Largest Empire yet. Centralized his government, divided empire into 23 administrative and taxation districts called Satrapies.
Darius's Successor (reigned from 486-465 B.C.E.) Sought to impose his own values on conquered lands, not tolerant. Catalyst for resentment of Persian conquerors.
Not strict monotheists. Recognized Ahura Mazda as supreme creator of all good things, also praised six lesser deities called Gathas. Also had an evil figure that was in constant battle with good. Believed that human souls would be up for individual judgement and good would be rewarded. Attract large number of followers in 6th Century B.C.E.
Greek term for City-State. By 800 B.C.E. they are principal centers of Greek society. Most important polies were Sparta and Athens. Sparta: Equal rights for women and men, strong military emphasis. Athens: Strong artistic, cultural center, gender inequality.
Means "Armored man." Hoplites were citizen soldiers who typically used spears and carried round shields. Crucial in warfare between various City-States.
(431 to 404 B.C.E.) The civil war under two main camps of Sparta and Athens. Athens dominates the Sea battles, while Sparta wins all battles on land.
Alexander the Great
Alexander of Macedon (reigned from 330B.C.E. to 323B.C.E.) One of the best conquerers of all time. He expanded his empire more than any man before. Taught by Aristotle. Ensured the spread of Greek philosophy and education to the modern world.
Economic and political competition brought the Romans into conflict with Carthage. (246 and 146 B.C.E.) Three devastating conflicts. The rivalry ended when Rome subjected Carthage to an extended siege, burned the city, and forced survivors into Slavery.
Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assassinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power. Extended Roman citizenship, launched large scale building projects in Rome. Made Cleopatra queen of Eqypt.
Gaius Octavian Augustus
The heir of Caesar (grandnephew) Took western part of Rome (defeats Anthony @ Actium). Octavian proclaimed the restoration of the Republic. New name: Augustus. Monarchy disguised as a Republic, 1st emperor of Western Roman Empire
(Reigned 31 BC -14 CE) Reorganized new military system, creating a standing army with all commanders pledging loyalty. First two centuries of empire was a period of consolidation and prosperity.
Roman Imperial Cult
involved the offering of divine honors to a living or dead emperor.
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God.
Emperor of Rome (284-305) who divided the empire into east and west (286) in an attempt to rule the territory more effectively. His desire to revive the old religion of Rome led to the last major persecution of the Christians (303).
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a tolerated/favored religion.
Council of Nicaea
The first gathering of Christian Bishops to try to find a clearly defined doctrine, set up by Emperor Constantine
Julian the Apostate
Emperor 331-363 CE. Last non-christian emperor of Rome. Successful campaigns against barbarians, but wounded fatally in battle. Wanted to bring the empire back to its traditional values to avoid dissolution.
He divides the Roman Empire into two different empires (Roman & Byzantine). He also makes Christianity the only religion you could be.
He was the last emperor of western Rome who transported his insignia and office to the east upon his defeat by the Ostrogoths
the most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the European, Indian, and Chinese; transmitted goods and ideas among civilizations
formed with a combination of Christianity, Zoroastriaism, Buddhism, and Judism. Lived an ascetic lifestyle
Justinian the Great
Early emperor and most important of the Byzantine empire. He had three main goals:
1) To reconquer to West
2) To restructure the government
3) To Strengthen and Beautify Constantinople
the separation of most of the Eastern churches from the Western Church in A.D. 1054.
(570 to 632 A.D.) Prophet. Human at the center of Islam. Born in Mecca. Raised by his Uncle and trained to be a Merchant. Gained reputation for being "trustworthy/faithful". Marries an older widow. In 610 (Age 40) Muhammad underwent serious spiritual experience and had messages and revelations from Allah, delivered through Angel Gabriel.
Five Pillars of Islam
1. Only worship Allah
2. Pray daily, facing Mecca
3. Fast on Ramadan
4. Contribute alms
5. Hajj to Mecca (at least once)
These five pillars, link all sects of Islam and are established by Muhammad as most important qualities of Islam in late 620s.