Chapter 11 Genetics & Inheritance

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Terms and Definitions

genotype

genetic make-up of an organism, eg., Tt

phenotype

physical characteristic of an organism, eg., blonde hair

homozygous

organism that has two identical alleles for a gene = pure breed=true breeding, eg., TT or tt

heterozygous

organism that has different alleles for a gene, eg., Tt

Incomplete dominance

Heterozygous phenotype is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes; eg., white and black result in gray

Co-dominance

when both alleles show up in the phenotypes, eg, solid color feather parents in speckled chicken feathers

Gene

factors that determine a trait passed from one generation to the next

Genetics

study of heredity; how traits are inherited from geneneration to generation

allele

different forms of a gene

dominant

dominant allele hides or masks the recessive; represented by a capital letter

recessive

recessive allele is hidden or masked by the dominant

Law of Segregation

For sexually reproducing organisms (like plants and animals) they inherit 2 copies of each gene.

Gamete

sex cells used for reproduction; guys and girls produce gametes

Probability

likelihood that a particular event will take place

Gregor Mendel

the father of genetics

Fertilization

process in which male and female gametes join to produce a new cell

hybrid

offspring between parents with different traits and characteristics..heterozygous

Pure breed

describes organisms that for many generations have offspring identical to the parent in a characteristic..homozygous

Trait

specific characteristic of an individual

Principle of Dominance

Some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

Independent Assortment

genes for different traits segregate independently when gametes are formed

Punnett Square

mathematical diagram that can be used to predict the offspring of a genetic cross

Multiple Allele

more than two alleles are involved in a phenotype

Polygenic Trait

involves the interaction of two or more genes

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