Physio midterm review: lab 6: hearing and equilibrium

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where are the receptors for hearing located

cochlea-spiral shaped cavity of the inner ear-"snail shell"

parts of the outer ear

auricle [pinna], external auditory canal [meatus], and tympanic membrane [eardrum]

auricle [pinna]

responsible for collecting sound waves

external auditory canal [meatus]

directs collected sound waves towards the tympanic membrane [eardrum]

tympanic membrane [eardrum]

separates the outer ear from the middle ear; sound waves cause it to vibrate at the same frequency as the sound waves hitting it

parts of the middle ear

auditory ossicles and auditory tube [eustacian tube]

auditory ossicles

transmits and amplifies vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window; made up of three parts: malleus [hammer], incus [anvil], and stapes [stirrup]

components of the auditory ossicles

malleus [hammer], incus [anvil], and stapes [stirrup]

auditory tube [eustacian tube]

connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx [upper portion of the throat]; equalizes air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane

parts of the inner ear

cochlea, semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule

cochlea

contains a series of fluids, channels, and membranes that transmits vibrations to the organ of corti; houses hair cells [receptors for hearing]

semicircular canals

contains receptors that help maintain dynamic equilibrium; has nothing to do with hearing

utricle and saccule

contains receptors that help in dynamic and static equilibrium

what are hair cells

receptors for hearing located in the cochlea

ossicles

located in the middle ear; transmits and amplifies vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window; three parts: malleus [hammer], incus [anvil], and stapes [stirrups]

weber test

used to determine conduction and sensorineural deafness

sensorineural deafness

result of damage to the neural structures of the middle ear; damage to cochlear cells from prolonged exposure to higher frequencies [concerts]

weber test result for sensorineural deafness

the tone will be heard in the unaffected ear, but not in the ear with sensorineural deafness

weber test result for conduction deafness

the tone will be heard more strongly in the ear in which there is a hearing loss due to sound conduction by the bone of the skull

weber test procedure

strike a tuning fork and place the handle of the tuning fork medially on your partner's head

function of semicircular canals

contains receptors that have nothing to do with hearing; receptors help maintain dynamic equilibrium

static equilibrium

receptors provide sensory information on the spatial position of the head and help maintain posture and balance

dynamic equilibrium

receptors help maintain the position of the head in response to movement

conduction deafness

something interferes with the conduction of sound to the fluids of the inner ear; once blockage is removed sound can be restored

factors that may contribute to conduction deafness

wax blocking auditory canal, middle ear infections like otitis media

sensorineural deafness

result of damage to neural structures of the middle ear; damage to cochlear cells from prolonged exposure to high frequencies [concerts]; hearing can not be restored

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