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theory of evolution by natural selection

vast implications for psychology
Charles Darwin
functional, adaptive value of animal behaviors

Erasmus Darwin

Grandfather of Charles Darwin
early theory of evolution
famous intellectual
1731-1802

Charles Darwin - Early

medical school, Uni Edinburgh
studied geometry, classics, natural theology at Cambridge
mentored by Henslow, Sedgwick

John Stevens Henslow

1796-1861
teacher of Darwin
prof of Botany
scientific views colors by High church conservative

Adam Sedgwick

1785-1873
prof of geology
Anglican clergyman
scientific views clouded by High church conservatism

Sedgwick & Henslow

used clout to discredit anyone who endorse evolutionary ideas
influence destroyed their reps and careers

Charles Lyell

published Principles of Geology
promoted uniformitarianism

uniformitarianism

earth's major features result of gradual processes occurring over vast stretches of time, continued to move in present as much as past

alternative to catastrophism

required much more time than Ussher estimated

catasrophism

geological features arose because of few sudden and massive cataclysms

James Ussher

estimated that earth only 6000 years old
Irish archbishop

megatherium

fossilized remains of extict creature embedded in cliffs of argentina
animals that not make it on arc? or evidence that catasrophism wrong?

Darwin early insights

ask function of characteristic
understand usefulness
noted geographic distribution

Galapagos creatures

subtle variations btwn islands that were result of adaption to environment

argument from design

because of the purpose and order of things they must have a creator.-- organisms and their systems are too complex to have spontaneously appeared

William Paley

William Paley

argument from design
structure of an eye is cure for atheism.

Lamarck

species evolve and change owing to the inheritance of bodily changes produced by voluntary exercise or disuse of particular organ

not able to account for evolution of nonvoluntary characteristics e.g protective coloration

Species vs. breeds

genuine species maintain distinctive qualities automatically by breeding successfully only like with like

breeds artificially maintained, can interbreed

Thomas Malthus

human beings destined to live in poverty
capacity to increase population exceeds their capacity to increase food production

famine, disease, poverty serve as check on future population growth

stable population exist at subsistence level
normal outcome of human and social economic existience

natural selection

those that survive will disproportionately be best adapted to overcoming danger in that enviroment

if adaptive characteristics heriable, their offspring will survive in greater numbers and propagate in greater numbers than those without that trait

selective effects of nature go on much longer than breeders leading to species creation

Helmholtz

eye is optically imperfect, eye evolving organ, not deliberate design

Alfred Ruseel Wallace

naturalist
1858
outlined evolution by natural selective independently of Darwin
hastened Darwin's public presentation of the work

Thomas Henry Huxley

advocate of Darwin
expert in primate anatomy
debated Samuel Wilberforce - bishop of Oxford

archeopteryx

Advanced case for evolution
most ancient bird/dino
had wings
evidence that birds evolved from reptiles
1861

New Great Ape

Advanced case for evolution
sim anatomy to humans in ways that anti-evolutionists had argued where exclusively human
never before discovered 1861

Darwin on the Mind

human mental qualities understood as result of evolution
acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation

Descent of Man

Darwin
argued explicitly that humans descended from animal ancestors

Descent of Man - evidence

evidence in structural similarites btwn humans and higher animals
-bones, muscles, blood vessels, internal viscera, nerves, brain
-able to share diseases with animals
-rudimentary organs
-pass thru embryological development where they closed resembled animals

Descent of Man - mental faculties

no difference fundamentally btwn man and higher mammal in mental faculties
both have: courage,
kindness,
emotion experience sim in dogs
-jealousy
-pride
-shame
-humor
memory
attention
curiosity
dream - capacity for imagination
rudiments of reason
-learn from experience
-communicate
-gesture
difference is a diff of degree, not kind

Descent of Man on race

supported mongenist view
races all have similar structure
only accounted for by common ancestor
enviromental and education variables influenced indiv differences
as well as institutional factors like slavery
enviromental differences created the superficial differences btwn the races

skin color related to sun exposure
europeans had to be cleverer bc of the poor european winters

Structuralism (Theory)

Devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thought--looking for the elements of conscious experience - Titchner

Objective Introspection

The process of reporting one's own conscious mental experiences

Functionalism (Theory)

Emphasizes the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment

Psychodynamic (Theory)

Behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts; things we are likely not even aware of

free association

Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German.

Kenneth Clark.

The first African American president of the APA was:

mechanism

The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is:

experience

Empiricism attributes all knowledge to

J. Müller

Until the work of ________, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology.

developed the idea of the pleasure principle.

While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:

whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.

Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:

the process of organizing mental elements into a whole.

Wundt's doctrine of apperception refers to:

Ebbinghaus

While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?

Ladd-Franklin

Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?

Washburn

Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?

To identify the physiological correlates of the elements.
The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness.
The reduction of conscious processes.

Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?

existential

By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.

existed long before Titchener used the method.

Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:

develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.

Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:

retrospection

Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:

his experimental method and a strong position to protest.

The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are:

the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.

The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were:

There were too many identified species to fit two by two into a boat.

Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah's ark?

fact of variation among members of the species.

The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the:

Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection.
under drought conditions, more thick- than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced.
when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished.

In the study of finches' beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that:

comparative psychology.

The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in:

eugenics

The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of:

Galton

Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?

the effects of childhood experiences on the adult.

Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of:

studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology.

James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he:

William James

Although it took twelve years to complete, this person's great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt's approach to psychology.

the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements.

William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate that:

Calkins

In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one's learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by:

the variability hypothesis.

Hollingworth's research refuted:

child development.

Hall's Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in:

Hall

The introduction of psychoanalysis to the American public was accomplished by:

recapitulation theory.

The notion that children's development reflects the history of the human race is the:

Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.

John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?

adaptive and essential for an organism's survival.

For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is:

literary and artistic creations of a culture

Like Wundt, Carr proposed that studying ________ would illuminate mental processes.

his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University.

Cattell's interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by:

Binet

The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by:

Lillian Gilbreth

The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was:

Münsterberg's

Whose therapeutic technique might be described as "therapist-centered?"

polygenists

different races difference species of being

monogenist

common ancesrty and relatedness of all human groups

sexual selection

gradual selection and evolution of characteristics that are specifically favorable for reproductive success

creates pressure for a particular type of beauty

Darwin on Sexual Selection

influence in human evolution
resulting in characteristic mental and physical differences
w more tender and less selfish for maternal instincts
m must compete w/ other men - > makes him more ruthless, clever, and selfish

complementarity

men and women evolved so as to manifest seperate psychological characteristics that complement each other

variation hypothesis

males more modified by evolution
show more variation than females
males have greater range

expression of emotion - Darwin

three general principles could account for all emotional expression
1) direct serviceability of the expression
2) antithesis of direct serviceability
3) direct activation of the nervous system
human emotions similar throughout human groups

biographical sketch of an infat

observations of son in early stages of life
roles of instinctive reflexes and other sensibilities in an increading effective adaptation to the world

in general this was done by gradual strenthening, complication, and fusion of simple seperate tendencies

recapitualtion

individuals stages and patterns consistent with earilier and less highly evolved species
suggested each indiv retain rudiments of the long evolutionary past

aid Darwin's argument of evolution

social darwinism

popularized by philosopher Herbert Spencer

evolution highly desirable progress
presumed vechiule is unbridled competition amoung indivs
justification for system of unregulated free enterprise

Spencer

early supporter of Lamarack's theory of evolution
synthetic philosophy

synthetic philosophy

spencer fused bio, psych, sociology, anthropology

indiv organisms etc all tend to evolve from relatively simple and homog entities into complex heterogenous ones

George J. Romanes

comparative psychology
Animal intelligence, Mental Evolution in ANimals
study similarities betwenn various animals

evolution contrib to psychology

focus on issue of variation and differences within indivs

shift psych to focus on functional and differential

Cattel

-student of Wundt (American)
-did studies with light intensity and shock
-him and Berger were only subjects
-simple RT
-discrimination RT (reaction with perception time), and choice RT (reaction with perception and will time)
-Used Donder's system to arrive at above
-T-scope: allowed you to flip card for controlled amount of time

fractionation

seperation of task into its components, each of which could be introspected (Kulpe)

Reverend William Paley

-arguement from design
-need a supreme being to watch over complex nature

Zoonomia

-Erasmus Darwin
-theory of creation
-theory of transmutation

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck

-chain of being theory: all the species on earth could be arranged on a linear scale with reference to their complexity
-inheritance of acquired characteristics

Charles Darwin

-studied at Edinburgh, then Cambridge
-Reverend John Henslow (botany teacher and mentor)
-Reverend Adam Sedgwick (geologist and mentor)
-captain Robert FitzRoy, captain of the H.M.S. Beagle
-primary focus of the Beagle to survey the southern coasts of South America
-Galapagos Islands
-finches differed from island to island
-presented his theory to the Linnean Society

catastrophism

-world was created through catastrophes
-supported God within scientific theory
-Sedwick, Darwin's mentor supported it.

uniformitarianism

-change occurs slowly in planet to cause geological changes
-endorsed by Charles Lyell

The 2 clues that led Charles Darwin to his theory of evolution.

1st clue: Political economist Thomas Malthus suggested that the poor should not be supported under England's government. Believed that the fittest would survive and that this would create population control so that they wouldn't be in crisis because of resources.
2nd clue: farmer were using artificial selection to create different breeds of pigeons.

What caused Charles Darwin to publish?

Alfred Russel Wallace wrote a letter to Darwin. It's contents contained a theory of evolution similar to his own.

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life

-written by Charles Darwin
-sold out first day
-contained theory of evolution

Thomas Huxley

Darwin's Bulldog

The Descent of Man

-written by Charles Darwin

Selection in Relation to Sex

-written by Charles Darwin

Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals

-written by Charles Darwin

What was Charles Darwin's primary contribution to psychology?

-functionalism
-comparative psychology (systematic study of similarities and differences among all animal species)

How did Charles Darwin mimic real life emotions in other people?

-galvanization
-identified the muscles associated with emotions
-originally thought to observe children and insane because they wouldn't have normal inhibitions.

What did Darwin find by studying the expressions of animals?

1. The principle of serviceable associated habits: sneering started from the reaction we gave to people when they smelled bad
2. Principle of antithesis: emotions that are opposite of each other are expressed in bodily reactions that are opposed.
3. Direct action of the nervous system: side effects of physiological arousal

George Romanes

The Anecodotal Method
-excited over Darwin's theory (& his protege)
-investigated the levels of mental ability that could be found in other species
-founder of comparative psychology

Animal Intelligence

-written by Geroge Romanes
-a detailed catalog of animal behavior from insects to primates
-tends to be anthropomorphic and anecdotal

Francis Galton

-won medal from Royal Geographical Society for exploring South Africa
-found that all finger prints were unique
-pioneered surveys and twin studies
-eugenics (artificial selection in humans for intelligence)
-tested senses for intelligence
-believed women were inferior because of their inferior senses
-invented the statistical concept of correlation
-did studies with mental imagery and free association
-created a word association test
-tried to empirically see if prayer was effective (saw no evidence)
-Anthropometric Laboratory

Hereditary Genius

-written by Francis Galton
-intelligence is innate

English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture

-written by Francis Galton
-gave questionnaires to The Royal Society (the scientific elite of England)

William James

1st psychology lab in America

Edward Bradford Titchener

-setup lab at Cornell
-1st graduate student was a woman
-tried to transplant Wundt's psychology
-defines structuralism and brings it to America

Introspection (Wundt)

-had to be trained to do
-must have lazer like view of mind
-must use type of stimulus that can be quantified
-gave subjects warning of stimulus
-must be repeatable
-must catalogue essence of mind
-sensations and emotions

Sir Charles Lyell

-Principles of Geology
-Darwin took his book on his trip
-believed world was older than currently believed (6,000 years old)
-gave the amount of time for Darwinian evolution to take place
-believed physical features were developed by natural forces

Thomas Malthus

-population growth in Britain and economic growth with it
-struggle for population

Herbert Spenser

-survival of the fittest
-comparable psychology
-inheritance of elements in men and animals

Karl Pearson

-opened eugenics lab for Galton at the University of London
-wanted to measure differences in people
-discovered regression towards the mean (Pearson's R)
-tall parents have shorter children, short parents have taller children.

1965

In what year did the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences begin publication?

history

Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its:

experimentation

The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on:

altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers.

An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who:

free association

Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German.

Kenneth Clark.

The first African American president of the APA was:

personalistic

The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen today, Freud would discover it would be an argument for which of the following theories?

his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory.

In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because:

scientific revolution

In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ________ occurred.

mechanism

The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is:

developed the idea of the pleasure principle.

While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:

whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.

Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:

introspection

Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including:

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905).

One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication:

Washburn

Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?

To identify the physiological correlates of the elements.
The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness.
The reduction of conscious processes.

Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?

existential

By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.

existed long before Titchener used the method.

Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:

develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.

Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:

retrospection

Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:

his experimental method and a strong position to protest.

The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are:

the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.

The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were:

fact of variation among members of the species.

The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the:

Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection.
under drought conditions, more thick- than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced.
when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished.

In the study of finches' beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that:

comparative psychology.

The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in:

eugenics

The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of:

Galton

Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?

the effects of childhood experiences on the adult.

Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of:

stimulation of the development of comparative psychology.

Despite Romanes's deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his:

Spencer

Who did Darwin call "our philosopher"?

Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor.

Which of the following statements is NOT part of social Darwinism?

studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology.

James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he: