Congress of Vienna 1815
A conference of ambassadors of European states to settle the issues after the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, which would result in the redrawing of the continental political map and establish the boundaries of France, the Duchy of Warsaw, the Netherlands, the states of the Rhine, Saxony, territories of Italy, and the creation of spheres of influence for France, Austria, Russia, and Britain.
Member of the Conference of Vienna. Austrian. Didn't want revolution but saw new breed of revolution emerging.
Member of the Conference of Vienna. British war minister. Wanted to maintain peace.
Member of the Conference if Vienna. France. Helped France gain size.
Concert of Europe
An attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe. The balance of power after the Congress of Vienna, with Austria, Prussia, Russia, the UK, and France as members. Balance of power between major powers. France, Russia, Prussia, Great Britain, and Austria. Great Britain gained Helgoland and stable trade. Holy Alliance made between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Prussia gains Rhineland. German Confederation created.
An association of Central European states established by the Congress of Vienna which acted as a buffer between Prussia and Austria, was widely considered an obstacle to German nationalism and was weak and ineffective, would collapse in the revolution by liberals and nationalists trying to create a unified German state but would re-establish after that failed.
A set of restrictions introduced by the German Confederation on its states, which would cause most trouble because it is literate and have most universities. Designed to purge university bodies of trouble-makers. Imposed journalistic restrictions, restrictions on student organizations, and committees to investigate and stamp out revolutionaries.
Waves of Revolution: 1820s, 1830s, 1848
Religious and linguistic divide. Split between Scottish (protestants) and Walloons (spoke French and catholic). Three national languages. Mess of a country. Traders rose and replaced the aristocracy.
French King. Succeeded his older brother Louis XVIII. Ruled for 6 years until the July Revolution in 1830 when he was exiled. Succeeded by Louis Philippe.
Given to French through the Entente Cordiale in 1904. Many French people emigrated here between 1825 and 1847. The immigrants kinda ruined this country.
Replaced his cousin Charles X and his conservative regime for a more liberal monarchy. Ruler of the July Monarchy for 18 years, but then was forced to abdicate in the wake of the second republic in 1848, was the last "king" to rule France.
Le Grande Bourgeoisie
The great middle class of France. Rising at the expense of the aristocrats.
Second Republic 1848
Republican government of France in between the revolution of 1848 which unseated Louis Phillipe and when Louis-Napoleón Bonaparte took control and initiated the Second Empire. Was a time of liberal government but was riddled with failure. France held elections after Louis Phillipe. Won by Napoleon's nephew, Louis Napoleon.
Napoleon's nephew, ruler of the Second Empire, was elected President of the Second Republic in 1848 but took over control in a coup d'état in 1851, ruled as the Emperor of the French until 1870, was the first President and the last monarch of France, attempted to jettison the limits of the Concert of Europe and re-entrench French influence, was involved in a war against Austria for Italian unification, fought at the lead of the Crimean war. Was not as effective as Napoleon I. Wanted to be second Augustus.
Second Empire 1851
Louis Napoleon's coup d'état in 1851 commenced this and rose him to the presidential position until 1870.
Italian unification. Started with Piedmont's independence from Austria. Major figures include Mazzini, Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II, and Camilo Cavour.
Italian nationalist who formulated society called Young Italy. Worked to bring around the modern state of Italy in stead of the rule of multiple foreign powers, also was a radical who helped define the movement for popular democracy in a republican state. Rejected old policies. Created nationalist party.
Italian revolutionary/radical involved in the Carbonaris (Secret revolutionary societies). 1834 in Piedmont, expelled for revolutionary activity and became mercenary. 1848, went back to Rome and fought French troops and became exile for second time. Returned to Italy as a commander in the Risorgimento. Met Mazzini in 1833 and became member of Young Italy. Shows up in Sicily, defeats larger Bourbon army and gets army of 10,000 men (men join him), goes to Maples. Cavour takes Piedmontese Army to confront him. This guy observes he didn't stand a chance against Cavour so agreed to give up his command to Victor Emmanuel (king of Piedmont). named himself dictator of Sicily, occupied Naples, and now teamed up with Victor Emmanuel after Cavour sends an army to stop his advancement into the mainland.
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia. Was a Savoyard. Was the first King of the united Italy and spearheaded the wars of Italian Unification. Was a symbol of the Risorgimento. Wanted a united Italy but not a radical. Teamed up with Garabaldi.
Became Victor Emmanuel's first minister. Goal was a united Italy. Saw Italy's problem. Wanted to build up Piedmont. Convinced members to make Piedmont a great nation. Called it a "Marriage of Connubial". Got Liberals and conservatives together, and stabilized currency, taxes, ruled out corruption, infrastruction, built army. Got piedmont in Crimean War to gain France and England as allies. Army needed experience as well. 1859, put proposal to Louis Napoleon III that he wanted French support if there was war against Austria. Piedmont gave France Nice and Sevoy in exchange for French alliance if Piedmont was attacked (Plombieres Agreement 1858). Cavour's tactic was to go to Austria and basically declare war. Piedmont offered as sanctuary to Austrian draftees. Austria declares ultimatum and goes to war with Piedmont (War of 1859, Franco-Austrian-Piedmontese War). Battle of Solferine and Magenta. Napoleon III had enough and gave a deal (Armistice of Vitlafranca). Ends fight, Austria would allow Piedmont to annex Lombardy. Cavour was furious and resigned. Wanted Piedmont to control ALL of Italy so he sends an army to confront Garabaldi at Maples and defeats him.
Plombieres Agreement 1859
A secret agreement between Cavour and Louis Napoleon to a joint war against Austria for Italian independence, where the current Kingdom of Sardinia and Piedmont would gain all Austrian territories in Italy as well as Parma and Modena. Piedmont gave France Nice and Sevoy in exchange for French alliance if Piedmont was attacked.
War of 1859
Piedmont vs. Austria. Piedmont backed by French. Fought for Italian independence from Austria.
Battle of Solferino
A bloody battle in which the French under Louis Napoleon and the Sardinians under Victor Emmanuel conquered the Austrian Army under emperor Franz Joseph. This battle was witnessed by the guy who started the Red Cross and the Geneva Conventions and is cited as the reason for their creation due to its cruelty.
Battle of Magenta
A bloody French-Sardinian victory against the Austrians in this town in Northern Italy. A very decisive defeat of the Austrians. This is the battle where the color originated from due to the excess blood.
Armistice of Villafranca 1860
Louis Napoleon needed a way out of the war because the German states might have intervened, so he signed an armistice with Austria. Land would be transferred from Austria to France, then immediately given to Sardinia). Would reinstate the previous Central Italian rulers who had been overthrown by revolution. Was made behind the backs of the Sardinians and outraged them. Cavour resigned because of it, but it never came into full effect. Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal Legations were annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and France would take its deferred reward, Savoy and Nice. Led Garabaldi to take Sicily, completing the unification of Italy.
Redshirts invade Sicily 1860
Expedition of the Thousand. Garibaldi walks into Sicily with 1000 followers/volunteers and names himself governor. Two months later Sardinia had control of the island.
Agreement at Teano
Secret agreement between Garabaldi and Victor Emanuel where Garabaldi surrendered control to Emmanuel.
Frankfurt Parliament 1848
Leaders of uprising would set forth demands to the state. Total economic and political transformation of Prussia. First freely elected parliament for all of Germany. As a result of the revolutions in the states of the German Confederation. Created a constitution which established a German Empire based on parliamentary democracy, fulfilling demands of liberal and nationalist movements and gave basic rights. Kaiser Wilhelm refused the office of Emperor on the grounds that it was an abridgment of rights. Parliament based on population and geography.
Bought time before Russians (usual suppressors of revolutionaries) put down the troops in Hungary. Austrian King freed serfs, reduced censorship, trying to stop unrest. The rebellion failed and fell apart because it was several social classes (disunity), kings were stubborn, and the Frankfurt Parliament failed.
Hungarian politician, was Regent-President of Hungary in 1849. Provoked Russian intervention which caused Hungarians to stop protesting and join Austria as an empire. Was a freedom-fighter and a harbinger of democracy. Became a leader of the revolutions in Europe and helped overthrow Metternich and marched to Vienna to dethrone the Hapsburgs, declaring Hungary's independence. However, in the end his revolution was unsuccessful because he had to surrender to the Russians who then gave Hungary back to Austria.
Russian Intervention in Hungary 1850
The Austrians realized that they needed help from the Russians. They call the supreme suppressors of revolutionaries.
Otto von Bismarck
German political genius. "Realpolitik" (greatest interest of country). Eliminated concept of personal autonomy and individual freedom. Engineered defeat of Austria. Nationalist. Dominated European diplomacy. Wanted to unify Germany under Prussia. Oversaw the unification of Germany, created the German Empire and was the first Chancellor of it. He was a junker, an aristocrat in eastern Germany, core of the conservative movement. Subsidized housing, created a minimum wage, created the first welfare state.
The Sugar Plum and the Whip
Otto von Bismarck's national policy. He extends rights (the Sugar Plum) to his people while also brutally repressing (the Whip) any dissenters.
Population here was German and Prussia wanted provinces because of canal Gutlend. Otto von Bismarck's war against Denmark that allowed him to control these two strategic provinces in Denmark. The question was whether they should become part of Germany.
Prusso-Danish War 1864
Otto von Bismarck's war to gain control of both Schleswig and Holstein, the result was a decisive German victory against Denmark. German agencies whipped up a rumor of Danes persecuting people. Able to stir up discontent to point where Prussia could demand a referendum, Denmark turned it down. War resulted and Denmark lost
Austro-German War 1866: Sadowa (Konigplatz)
War between the Austria and Prussia/Italy. Austria demanded jurisdiction in these provinces because Bismarck did not consult Austria about taking provinces. All has to do with Congress of Vienna (Germany) and one not having power over the other. Bismark gives right to vote in Shleswig, sends agent to raise hell. Austria fires at people after revolt and war breaks out. Battle of Sadowa (Austria) Battle of Königplatz (Prussia). Austrian Army had a lot of soldiers but lost. Austrians withdraw from Venetia. Resulted in Prussia dominating German States, also helped with Italian unification, ended with Germany becoming unified.
Bismarck's manipulation of the Kaiser's wording to incite the French to war. Published/Edited by Bismarck to make it look as if German Kaiser offended French. "I want to wave a red flag in front of Gallic (French) bull". Bismarck then goes to war with French.
Franco-Prussian War 1870-71
Along French Border Provinces of Alsace-Lorraine population more than 50% German. Wilhelm wanted these provinces to control both banks of Rion River. Bismark sets it up (involved succession into Spain). French ambassador went to Ems, Wilhelm confronted by French ambassador, insisted that Germany would never challenge who would be in Spanish throne.Telegraph insulted French, so they declare war on Germany. France got butt Kicked. Louis Napoleon forced to resign. French withdraw from Rome. Colossal victory for Germany. Conflict between Louis Napoleon's empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, was the final war of unification for Germany and solidified the unification, also had the downfall of Louis Napoleon and caused the end of the Second French Empire and the start of the Third French Republic.
Treaty of Frankfurt 1871
Ended the Franco-Prussian War. France would lose province Alscae-Lorraine. Also be subjected to north eastern region. Also had to huge amount of money for Germans to leave France.
Wilhelm I: German Empire
King of Prussia and the first Emperor of Germany, along with Otto von Bismarck achieved German unification and the establishment of the German Empire.
French politician who was Prime Minister under Louis-Phillipe and became the French leader to suppress the Paris Commune. Forced to abdicate but applauded the coming of the Third Republic.
Paris Commune 1871
A radical two month period of time where the working class governed France. Violently put to an end by Adolph Thiers. A left wing revolt. A brief ruling government of France that ruled Paris for a short time, was lauded by anarchists and Marxists but was violently brought to an end by Thiers and Gambetta.
Third Republic 1870
The republican government of France. Came to power after the Second Empire. Begun by Adolf Thiers.
Decembrist Revolt 1825
Russian army officers lead 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I because he came to the throne after his brother removed himself from the line of succession, was suppressed by Nicholas and took place in the Senate Square of St. Petersburg.
Emperor of Russia. Not the original heir. On the eve of his death Russia reached its peak size. Conservative, old leader and suppressed Decembrist revolt.
Scramble for Africa
The rapid movement/race of European countries in the 18th century to invade, colonize, and conquer as much of Africa as possible.
British explorer who first peaked the interest of Europeans in Africa when he took a small team on an expedition. In addition, he brought to light the existence of a horrendous slave trade (East African Slave Trade). Conducted by Omani Arabs.
John Hanning Speke
Claimed to have discovered the source of the Nile at lake Victoria, but he really had help from his partner Richard Burton. Burton returned to England to denounce Speke but Speke accidentally killed himself.
Henry Morton Stanley
Reporter who successfully set out to find Livingston in Southern Africa (famous quote: "Dr. Livingston I presume."). Livingston sent Stanley back with Livingston's journals but men in London accused Stanley of fraud. It took years before he was actually believed.
Terrible king of Belgium who set up one of the most gruesome slave systems in the Congo. He first created the Africa association and tricked the world into thinking he was taking Christianity, philanthropy, modernization to savages (but not actually). He stripped the land of its ivory and then moving on to rubber. (fun fact: he cut off the hands of salves who did not meet their cotton quotas).
Congo Free State
The state set up by Leopold II (described above) for his terrible rubber slaves.
British canal running through Egypt that was invaluable to the British because it provided easy access to India. It's protection caused many wars. Was sold by Egyptians and bought by Benjamin Disraeli, due to help from Rothschild.
Ruler of Egypt in the late 19th century during the Arabi Revolt. He sold the Suez Canal to Disraeli in order to get out of Egyptian debts.
Arabi Pasha leads the peasants of Egypt in the Arabi Revolt against the Khedive.
Arabi took over the government. However, the British PM (Gladstone) knows that anarchy in Egypt will disrupt the Suez Canal so they invade Egypt and the revolt was then defeated by Sir Garnett Woolseley's forces at the Battle of Tel-el-Kebir in 1882.
Battle of Tel-el-Kebir 1882
General Woolsey, a British Commander, defeats Pasha and tries to restore order...but Egypt is all messed up so British can't leave. British now occupies Egypt. Last time British use their red coats.
British Occupation of Egypt 1882
After Woolsey takes control, British realize they can't leave until Egypt is a stable country. Canal is very important. The rest of Europe is pissed that the British now occupy Egypt, so the British are worried that someone may disrupt the flow of the Nile, destroying Egypt.
William E. Gladstone
British minister in Egypt. Gets all the hatred for failing to rescue Chinese Gordon from Mahdi.
British PM who was key in the purchase of the Suez Canal. Got money from Rothschild with government as security.
Muhammad Ahmad (The Mahdi)
Goes into a cave in northern Sudan and says he saw the archangel Gabriel who said he was the Mahdi (basically like a supreme ruler). The Sudanese rallied around the Mahdi and began to make war against all the Egyptians in Sudan. By shear numbers, they destroy all but one Egyptian garrison in the Sudan.
Charles George Gordon
Charged with suppressing this slave trade in Sudan. Devout Christian, drinks a lot, and British officer who put down the Taiping rebellion in China. He is kind of crazy and goes by Chinese "__" because of the Taiping thing. Goes into Sudan and is a giant pest for the slave traders, but then he leaves. Sent to put down the Mahdi rebellion, but instead he prepares to save the final Egyptian fortress at Khartoum. Gladstone is in disbelief and sends Woolesley to save him but it is too late; Khartoum falls in 1885 and everyone is killed.
Siege of Khartoum 1885
Muhammad Ahmad is heading to Khartoum so Gordon is sent to evacuate British people. When Gordon gets there he decides to instead try to defend the City, he is killed in the raid, city falls but he gets a 50 cal and kills a bunch Africans. Help arrives a day late.
Berlin West Africa Conference 1885
Conference of all the European powers that set the ground rules for European activity in Africa. Leopold was given a seal of approval for his Congo plan here.
The Dutchmen and Hugenots (known as Boers) created this settlement in South Africa around 1600. People here were devout Calvinists and rustic farmers because they were isolated and never saw the enlightenment.
Some Dutch Huguenots or French protestants. Didn't abolish slavery. Very isolated people in South Africa, farmers who would keep to themselves. Fled to northern states (Orange free state and Transvaal).
The Great Trek
British conquered south Africa, they did not get along with the Boers, and there was a tiny rebellion in which 12 Boers were killed. This led to the Great Trek in which the Boers moved from Cape Town to the northeastern part of the country.
Leader of an African colony a little north of Boers. He is crazy, but a very good military leader, made combat more bloody in Africa. Created his own tribe known as the Zulus, who were ferocious warriors. Revolutionized warfare for Africans. Made the Assegai, a shortened spear and increased metal head (to make a stabbing instrument). Also manipulated Hannibal's military tactic shaped as an oxen.
Battle of Blood River 1838
Encounter between Boers and Zulus occurres here. Zulus minimized the Boer front by creating only one front. Zulus could only come in from one angle. However, the Boers eventually charged and scattered the Zulus, winning the battle. The Boers then went north and set up two states.
Transvaal and Orange Free State
Northern states set up by Boers. But weren't good at working together and these states were soon peacefully annexed by the British.
Anglo-Zulu War 1879-1880
British army invaded Zululand, starting this war. Brits vs. Zulus. Brits win. Boers "on the Brits side" but they didn't do anything.
Battle of Isandlwana 1879
Zulus destroyed the British. British underestimate Zulus. British dont operate under standard procedures because they believe Zulus are unorganized savages so they didn't dig trenches, etc. British massacred in their sleep.
Battle of Rorke's Drift 1879
During the Anglo-Zulu war. 100 Brits vs. 5000 Zulus. Brits win. Brits only lose 40 men. British finally defeat the Zulus once and for all here. Lasted three days, 2 or 3 thousand casualties. Zulus finally went away (saluting British for their bravery). British had Martini Henry rifle, Zulus acquired these but weren't trained to used these rifles. British were trained to drill and fire. British crushed Zulus. Once Zulus defeated, Boers told British thanks and told them to leave. Not good.
First Boer War 1880-1881
Small, petty war that consisted of only one battle where the British sent an army into Boer territory. British lose.
Battle of Majuba Hill 1881
Boers became enraged when a British general fired a volley during a Boer church service, and they came up the hill (in Orange State) with rifles and destroyed the British force, ending the war and returning the two republics back to the Boers.
Became Prime Minister of Cape Colony and also became majority share holder of gold in Johannesburg. Wealthy Englishman initiated idea of a Cape-to-Cairo railway. Founded Debiers, the largest diamond company in the world. Mined in South Africa. Unsuccessfully Choreographed revolt with Uitlanders against Boers and reputation ruined.
Cape to Cairo
A railroad system thought up by Cecil Rhodes. Had the Boers in his way.
Largest City in southern Africa. Source of diamonds and gold.
Miners from all over the world who traveled to Transvaal to mine in Johannesburg and have a chance at riches. Boers encaged and imprisoned them. Supposed to cry for help and have British (Rhodes) rescue them, but these people got drunk and didn't revolt.
Jameson Raid 1895
Rhodes choreographed a revolt with by the Uitlanders against the Boers. Rhodes would sweep into Transvaal (hearing the cries of the citizens). Uitlanders got drunk and didn't do so. General Jameson, decided to go in anyway. Took column into Transvaal, Boers saw them and surrounded them. Looked as if Britain conspired against an Independent Republic. Was an uprising led by Jameson that was intended to start a revolt but failed so. This revealed the entire plan to the Boers and ruined Rhodes's reputation, sparking the second Boer War.
Second Boer War 1899-1902
War can be seen in two phases. The Conventional Phase were three sieges by the Boers at Kimberly, Ladysmith, and Mafeking (most famous/Robert Powell was the British general there who defeated the siege). They sieged these places after hearing about British reinforcements that were headed to South Africa so they knew they had to take action. All three sieges were unsuccessful however, because they allowed time for British reinforcements to arrive. The second phase of the SBW was the Guerilla Phase. Frederick Robert, a great British general, was sent in to defeat the Boers. Robert captured Pretoria and claimed victory, but he had really helped the Boers. Capturing this city scattered the Boers and prevented them from using their normal tactic in which they had long trains of wagons, making them slow and immobile. Now the Boers could be fast and ambush the British in small groups, creating Guerilla war and allowing the Boers to stage attacks opportunistically rather than having to create huge planned attacks. Boers were extremely strong farmers.
Sieges: Kimberly, Ladysmith, Mafeking, 1899-1900
Kimberly was diamond center. Sieging all three was mistake because gave British time to regather. British got forts back. Mafeking relieved after 8 months.
Treaty of Vereeniging 1902
Made south Africa part of the British empire but effectively giving the land back to the Boers.
British Invasion of Sudan 1898
British want to reconquer the Sudan because it is technically part of Egypt and a threat to the Nile. Kitchener leads a British force straight down the Nile, building a railway as he goes. The whole way his men are being hounded by the Dervishes (committed, fanatical, courageous troops of Khalifa Abdullah--ruler of Sudan).
Horatio Herbert Kitchener
Leader of the British going into Sudan, they build a railroad and telegraph as they go. During Guerilla warfare phase of 2nd Boer war he captures Boer families for ransom, puts them in concentration camps.
Sudanese leader. Soldiers were called Fuzzy Wuzzies. Had most committed, courageous soldiers.
Battle of Omdurman 1898
Climax of Scramble for Africa. British finally defeat Abdullah's troops and conquer Sudan. Sudanese destroyed by machine guns. However, they go down and find Marshand and the French have built a fort at Fashoda.
Fashoda Crisis 1898
Marshand and the French have built a fort at Fashoda. Both sides were on the verge of all out war, but they agree to a compromise--they will wave the French, British, and Egyptian flags side-by-side at the fortress (share it). French make the British think that they could block the Nile. All for leverage. French leave because they had to deal with Dreyfus.
Entente Cordiale 1904
French and British resolved their differences. The French got the Maghreb while the British got the Egypt, control of the Nile, and much of Eastern Africa. It basically set the stage the Anglo-Franco alliance in World War I.