under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs
when thoracic volume increases and pressure decreases
under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs? explain.
when thoracic volume decreases and pressure increases; gases move in the direction that tends to equalize pressure inside and outside the "container"
what would happen if an opening were made into the chest cavity, as with a puncture wound?
the partial vaccum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses
how is a collapsed lung treated medically?
air is withdrawn (chest tube) and the chest is closed
what respiratory sounds are heard during both inspiration and expiration?
what respiratory sound is heard primarily during inspiration?
where are the vesicular sounds heard the best?
over most of the lung area
what is the volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration?
Residual volume (RV), approximately 1100ml
what is the volume of air that can be forcibly expired after a normal expiration?
expiratory reserve volume (ERV), approximately 1200ml
volume of air that is breathed in and out during a normal respiration?
tital volume (TV), approximately 500ml
what is the volume of air that can be forcibly inspired after a normal inspiration?
inspiratory reserve (IRV), approximately 2700-2800ml
what is the volume of air corresponding to TV+IRV+ERV
vital capacity (VC), approximately 4800ml
which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect
chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which are often associated
what happens during chronic bronchitis
the volume of air that can be inhaled decreases due to excessive mucus production
what happens during chronic emphysema
the amount of air that can be exhaled is decreased
what are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm?
medulla oblongata and pons
what effect does contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles have on the thoracic volume?
thoracic volume increases. the diaphragm moves inferiorly, increasing the superior-inferior dimension; the ribs swing up and out, increasing the lateral and anterior/posterior dimensions
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