old order; system of government in pre-revolution France
three social classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first estate), the nobles (second estate), and the townspeople (third estate)
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution (merchants, bankers, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors journalists, and professors)
king of France from 1774 to 1792, his failure to grant reforms led to the French Revolution; he and his queen (Marie Antoinette) were guillotined
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
the legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates
notebooks listing grievances made by all three estates
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
Medieval fortress that was used as a prison, stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
austrian wife of Louis XVI, who was unpopular. her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband
nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings
parisian working class who pushed that revolution into more radical action
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. Mostly middle class lawyers and intellectuals.
French revolutionary group formed mainly by middle classes who opposed more radical
Constitution of 1791
created by the National Assembly. Set up a limited Monarchy, set up new legislative assembly, reflected enlightenment ideas.
the right to vote
mass tax that required all citizens to contribute to the war effort
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. Leader of the CoPS.
French revolutionary leader who wrote in newspaper, and was stabbed to death in his bath
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Committee of Public Safety
The 12-member committee under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789
Radicals took control of the National Assembly and changed its name. Executed royal family and was responsible for reign of terror
A group of 5 men who were given control of France following the Reign of Terror
Form of government which followed the directory. Was established by Napoleon.
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country (spread throughout france)
popular military hero who gains enough power to crown himself Emperor of France. Creates Napoleonic Code, Continental System, and annexed many places for france. Was exiled to Elba and St. Helena
a popular vote by ballot (used by Napoleon)
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
a code of laws that embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of freedom
incorporated into empire
step down from power
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat. Prussian and British forces under Blucher and the Duke of Wellington routed the French forces under Napoleon