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chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

chlorophyll

green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis

stroma

The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

thylakoid

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.

light reactions

reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH

calvin cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

plant

multicellular autotroph in which the embryo develops within the female gametophyte

vascular tissue

Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.

lignin

substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid

cuticle

A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.

stomata

the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

ovary

a structure containing egg cells; the base of a pistil in a flower

gametophyte

Haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism

sporophyte

diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism

alternation of generations

A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.

bryophyte

nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives

pteridophyte

member of a group of seedless vascular plants with lignin-hardened support tissues that includes ferns

gymnosperm

a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective covering (sporophyte generation dominant)

pollen

tiny structures that contain the cells that will later become sperm cells

seed

embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply

ovule

A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.

angiosperm

A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary (sporophye generation dominant)

flower

specialized plant shoot that functions in reproduction; unique to angiosperms

stamen

The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.

carpel

The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.

endosperm

food-rich tissue that nourishes a seedling as it grows

fruit

ripened ovary of a flower

sepal

a leaflike structure that encloses the bud of a flower

petal

A modified leaf of a flowering plant; often the colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.

anther

long stalk at the top of a flower's stamen where meiosis produces spores that develop into pollen

embryo sac

female gametophyte within the ovule of a flowering plant

style

narrow structure in a flower; has a sticky tip (the stigma) and leads to the ovary

stigma

sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land

pollination

the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants

pollen tube

Structure that grows from a pollen grain to an ovule, enabling a sperm to pass directly to an egg

cotyledon

a seed leaf that stores food

germination

early growth stage of a plant embryo

vegetative reproduction

Type of asexual reproduction in which new plants grow from vegetative parts such as roots, stems, and leaves

fibrous root

part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest

taproot

primary root found in some plants that grows longer and thicker than other roots

stem

supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them

bud

plant structure containing undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and leaves

blade

main part of a leaf

petiole

thin stalk by which a leaf blade is attached to a stem

dermal tissue

outer covering or "skin" of a plant

vascular tissue

Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.

xylem

vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant

phloem

vascular tissue that transports food from a plant's leaves to its roots and other parts

ground tissue

tissue between the dermal tissue and vascular tissue of a non-woody plant that functions in photosynthesis, storage, and support

cortex

mass of cells forming the ground tissue of a plant's root; also found in ground tissue of stems

meristem

structure that generates new dermal, vascular, and ground tissue in a plant

apical meristem

Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.

primary growth

growth in plant length

root cap

A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.

secondary growth

growth in plant width

vascular cambium

A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.

wood

secondary xylem that accumulates during the annual growing season of a plant

cork cambium

A cylinder of meristematic tissue in plants that produces cork cells to replace the epidermis during secondary growth

bark

tree structure that includes all tissues outside the vascular cambium, including phloem, the cork cambium, and cork

root hair

A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.

root pressure

force that helps push water up the xylem in a plant

endodermis

layer of cells that completely encloses vascular tissue

transpiration

loss of water from a plant through its leaves

tracheid

long cell with tapered ends that transports water in the xylem

vessel element

short, wide cell that transports water in the xylem of a plant

guard cell

pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing

sieve-tube member

one of a chain of cells that forms a sieve tube, through which phloem sap flows in a plant

companion cell

cell found alongside a sieve tube in a plant that may provide resources to the sieve-tube members

pressure-flow mechanism

process by which phloem sap moves through a plant

plant kingdom characteristics

1. multicellular eukaryote 2. autotroph 3. embryo develops within female parent

charophytes

green algae that are the closest relatives of land plants

requirements for plant life on land

light, water, and reproduction

functions of roots

1. anchors plants 2. vascular tissue transports water and nutrients 3. absorbs oxygen

granam

Stack of thylakoids.

pistil

The female reproductive part of a flower

coevolution

process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other

what attracts pollinators

color, fragrance, uv nectar guides, food, mimicry, and wax

double fertilization

A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm

germination requirements

1. water 2. cold period for some 3. intense heat from a fire for som 4. scarification

rhizomes

underground stems that anchor a fern and absorb water

artificial vegetative reproduction

cuttings, layering, grafting

tree rings

date lines that determine the age of a tree

carnivorous plants

plants that have adapted to poor soil conditions by digesting insects to provide needed nutrients

parasitic plants

absorb sugars and minerals from their living host plant

capillary action

molecules are more attracted to the surface than they are to themselves

leaf draw

adhesion and cohesion pull the water molecules upward

mycorrhizae

network of hyphae and plant roots that helps plants absorb water and minerals from soil

rhizoids

thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)

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