A "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable.
The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured.
When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumed that these "mental" illnesses can be diagnosed on the bases of their symptoms and cursed through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
the bio-psycho-social perspective
A contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combined and interact to produce psychological disorders.
The American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition)", a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. presently distributed in an updated "text revision" - (DSM-IV-TR).
A psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially.
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
generalized anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterize by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. (major depressive disorder, manic episode, bipolar disorder)
major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder).
A group of sever disorder characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Preoccupations with delusions or hallucinations, often with the themes of persecution or grandiosity.
Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion.
Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrot-like repeating of another's speech or movements.
Schizophrenia with many or varied symptoms.
Withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared.
A rare disorder in which a person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity.
dissociative identity disorder
Having one or more distinct personalities that can control a person's behavior.
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.