MUSCULAR SYSTEM EXAM

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HOW MANY MUSCLES

OVER 630 MUSCLES

MUSCLES CANNOT PUSH

MUSCLES PULL & OFTEN WORK IN PAIRS

3 TYPES OF MUSCLES

SKELETAL, SMOOTH AND CARDIAC

ALL MUSCLES ARE ELONGATED

THUS ARE CALLED MUSCLE FIBERS

SKELETAL MUSCLES

STRIATED & VOLUNTARY, CONTRACT RAPIDLY, TIRES EASILY & MUST REST AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF ACTIVITY, IS 40% OF ADULT BODY WEIGHT, LARGEST TYPE OF MUSCLE, ARE MUSCLE FIBERS THAT MOVE ALL BONES, FACE & EYES

SMOOTH MUSCLES

VICERAL, NON-STRIATED, INVOLUNTARY, FOUND IN STOMACH, INTESTINES, URINARY BLADDER, REPIRATORY PASSAGES & BLOOD VESSELS, ARE SLOW & SUSTAINED, CONTRACTIONS ARE REGULATED BY HORMONES & AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

CARDIAC MUSCLES

STRIATED & INVOLUNTARY, FORMS THE WALL OF THE HEART, IS ATTACHED TOGETHER - NOT TO A BONE, CONTROLLED BY AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, CONTRACTS AT A STEADY RATE SET BY HEART'S PACEMAKER

LIGAMENTS

CONNECTIVE TISSUE BINDING BONES TO BONES
CONNECT AT THE END OF MUSCLES, PREVENTS SLIPPING/SLIDING FORCING THEM TO BEND

ORIGEN

PART OF THE BODY, USUALLY A BONE, WHERE THE MUSCLE ATTACHES & DOES NOT MOVE WHEN MUSCLE CONTRACTS

INSERTION

PART OF THE BODY WHERE THE MUSCLE ATTACHES & MOVES WHEN MUSCLE CONTRACTS

JOINTS = ARTICULATIONS

SITES WHERE 2 OR MORE BONES MEET

JOINTS - 2 FUNDAMENTAL FUNCTIONS

1) HOLD SKELETEN TOGETHER 2) PROVIDE MOBILITY

JOINTS CLASSIFICATION

CLASSIFIED BY THEIR STUCTURE (TYPE OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT JOINS THE BONES TOGETHER OR BY A FLUID FILLED JOINT CAPSULE) & CLASSIFIED BY THEIR FUNCTION (THE DEGREE OF MOVEMENT ALLOWED)

FIBROUS JOINT

CONNECTS BONES W/OUT ALLOWING ANY MOVEMENT. EG. SKULL AND PELVIS BONES

CARTILAGINOUS JOINT

JOINTS IN WHICH BONES ARE ATTACHED BY CARTILAGE, ALLOW ONLY A LITTLE MOVEMENT, EG. SPINE AND RIB BONES

SYNOVIAL JOINT

A FREELY MOVEABLE JOINT, ALLOW MUCH MORE MOVEMENT THAN CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS

JOINTS CAVITIY

CAVITIES BTWN BONES IN SYNOVIAL JOINTS ARE CALLED JOINT CAVITIES

SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

TISSUE LINING IN THE SYNOVIAL CAVITY - PRODUCES SYNOVIAL FLUID

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

SMOOTH, GLISTENING. WHITE TISSUE THAT COVERS THE SURFACE OF A JOINT

BURSA

SAC OF FLUID NEAR A JOINT

TENDON

CONNECTIVE TISSUE BINDING MUSCLES TO BONES

SUTURE JOINT

IMMOVABLE JOINT BTWN THE BONES OF THE SKULL

ARTICULATION

ANY TYPE OF JOINT

SYNOVIAL FLUID

VISCOUS FLUID WITHIN THE SYNOVIAL SPACE

SYNOVIAL CAVITY

SPACE BTWN BONES AT A SYNOVIAL JOINT

HINGE JOINT

ELBOW - MOVEMENT IN 1 DIRECTION, A BACK & FORTH MOTION

BALL AND SOCKET JOINT

SHOULDER JOINT - MOVEMENT IN MANY DIRECTIONS AROUND A CENTRAL POINT

SADDLE

FINGERS & TOES - MOVEMENT BACK & FORTH AND UP & DOWN

FLEXION

A BENDING MOTION

EXTENSION

A STRAIGHTENING MOTION

ABDUCTION

BONE MOVING AWAY FROM MIDLINE OF THE BODY

ADDUCTION

BONE MOVING TOWARD THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY

ROTATION

MOVEMENT OF A BONE TURNING ON ITS OWN AXIS

SUPINATION

TURNING PALM UP OR FORWARD

PRONATION

TURNING PALM DOWN OR BACKWARD

DORSIFLEXION

BENDING FOOT BACKWARD OR UPWARD AT THE ANKLE

PLANTAR FLEXION

BENDING FOOT DOWNWARD AT THE ANKLE WITH TOES POINTING DOWNWARD

CIRCUMDUCTION

MOVEMENT IN A CIRCULAR MOTION

BUCCINATOR

MUSCLES IN THE FLESHY PART OF THE CHEEK - HELPS WITH MASTICATION (CHEWING)

ORBICULARIS OCULI

MUSCLES AROUND THE ORBIT OF EACH EYE - CLOSES EYE & WRINKLES FOREHEAD

TEMPORAL OR TEMPORALIS

MUSCLES ABOVE & NEAR THE EAR, ELEVATES & RETRACTS MANDIBLE (JAW BONE)

MASSETER

MUSCLES AT THE ANGLE OF THE JAW, ELEVATES & RETRACTS MANDIBLE (JAW BONE)

OBICULARIS ORIS

CIRCULAR MUSCLES AROUND THE MOUTH, CLOSES & COMPRESSES LIPS

STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

MUSCLES EXTENDING FROM STERNUM UPWARD ALONG THE SIDE OF THE NECK, ROTATES NECK AND FLEX THE HEAD

TRAPEZIUS

FLAT TRIANGULAR MUSCLES COVERING THE BACK OF THE NECK & SHOULDERS

LATISSIMUS DORSI

MUSCLES ALONG THE SIDES OF THE MIDDLE OF THE BACK, CONNECT TO HUMEROUS (ARM BONE) & ROTATES ARM

PECTORALIS

MAJOR MUSCLE, LARGE, FAN SHAPED MUSCLE THAT CROSSES THE UPPER PART OF THE FRONT CHEST

BICEPTS

2 HEADED MUSCLE IN UPPER ARMS

TRICEPTS

3 HEADED MUSCLE IN UPPER ARMS

BRACHIORADIALIS

MUSCLE IN FRONT LOWER ARMS, FOREARM

DELTOID

THICK TRIANGULAR MUSCLE COVERING THE SHOULDER JOINTS

GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

MUSCLE FORMS MOST OF THE FLESHY PART OF THE BUTTOCKS

GLUTEUS MEDIUS

SMALLER MUSCLE IN UPPER BUTTOCKS

QUADRICEPTS - A GROUP OF 4 MUSCLES IN THIGH

1) RECTUS FEMORIS 2) VASTUS MEDIALIS 3) VASTUS LATERALIS 4) VASTUS INTERMEDIALIS

GASTRONEMIUS

MAIN MUSCLE OF THE CALF

TIBIALIS ANTERIOR

MUSCLE POSITIONED ON THE FRONT OF THE LEG

HAMSTRING MUSCLE

(3) MUSCLES ON THE BACK OF OUR THIGHS 1) BICEPTS FEMORIS 2) SEMIMEMBRANOSIS 3) SEMITENDINOSIS

MUSCULAR DISTROPHY

GENETIC DISORDER/INHERITED DISEASE THAT WEAKENS MUSCLES THAT HELP THE BODY TO MOVE

STRAINS

AN INJURY TO A MUSCLE OR TENDON
(OFTEN BACK OR HAMSTRING)

STRAINS 2 TYPES

ACUTE - TRAUMA (BLOW TO THE BODY)
CHRONIC - OVERUSE (REPETITIVE MOVEMENT)

SPRAINS

INJURY TO A LIGAMENT (STRETCHING/TEARING)
ANKLE IS MOST COMMON

ARTHRITIS

INFLAMMATION OF 1 OR MORE JOINTS

ARTHRALGIA

JOINT PAIN

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE - CHRONIC INFLAMMATION OF THE JOINTS - BODY TISSUES ARE MISTAKENLY ATTACKED BY ITS OWN IMMUNE SYSTEM

LUPUS

AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE - CHRONIC INFLAMMATION

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

WHEN BODY TISSUES ARE MISTAKENLY ATTACKED BY ITS OWN IMMUNE SYSTEM

DISCOID LUPIS

WHEN THE SKIN IS INVOLVED

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