Life Span Chapter 14

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Biosocial Development

The period of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood and brings the young person to adult size, shape, and sexual potential is called ____________. The physical changes of puberty typically are complete _________ ( how long?) after puberty begins. Although puberty begins at various ages, the _____ is almost always the same.

puberty; four years ;sequence

The average girl experiences her first menstrual period, called ______ at age _____________.

menarche; 12 years 8 month

The average boy experiences his first ejaculation of seminal fluid, called _____________, at age ____________.

spermarche; (just under) 13

Puberty begins when biochemical signals from the _______________trigger hormone production in the ______ ___________, which in turn triggers increased hormone production by the ________ ________. This route is called the _______ _______.

hypothalamus; pituitary gland; adrenal glands; HPA axis

Another route, called the __ __ __ affects the body's entire shape and functioning. The hormone _____________ _______ _________ causes the gonads, the _____________ in males and the _______ in females, to dramatically increase their production of sex hormones, especially _____ in girls and ______ in boys.

HPG axis; GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone); testes: ovaries; estradiol; testosterone

Emotional extremes and sexual urges _________ (usually do/do not usually) increased urining in adolescence.
This is due in part to the increasingly high levels of hormones such as _____________, a type of estrogen, and a _______________, a type of androgen.

usually do ; estradiol; testosterone

Not only are brain and body affected by hormones, but ____________ is as well. In addition, thoughts and emotions ____________ hormonal changes.

behavior; cause

The natural rhythms of every living creature, called _______________ are altered by puberty because hormones cause a "phase delay" in ______- _______ patterns.

bio-rhythms; sleep-wake

Normal children begin to notice pubertal changes between the ages of ___ and ___. Tow-thirds of the variation in each age of puberty is caused by ______________. Gilrs are about _____________(how many?) years ahead of boys in height.

8;13;genes ; two

The amount of _____ ______ affects the onset of puberty. Urban areas with the highest rates of chlidhood obesity also have the _________(earliest/latest) ages of puberty. This is particularly true for (girls/boys)

body fat; earliest; girls

The ________ _______ refers to the long-term upward or downward direction of a statistical measurement.
An example is the earlier growth of children over the last two centuries as ________ and ________ have improved. This trend __________________ (continues/has stopped) in developed nations.

secular trend; nutrition;medicine; has stopped

One hormone that has been implicated in the onset of puberty is __________, which stimulates the appettite.

leptin

For both sexes, fat is limited by _______, which therefore delays puberty by several years.

malnutrition

Another influence on the age of puberty is _____.

stress

Research suggests that family stress may __________(accelerate/delay) the onset of puberty.

accelerate

Stress may cause production of the hormones that cause ________. Support for this hypothesis comes from a study showing that early puberty correlated with _______________.

puberty; harsh parenting in early childhood

An evolutionary explanation of the relationship between stress and puberty is that ancestral females growing up in stressful environments may have increased their ____________ ______ by accelerating physical maturation.

reproductive success

For girls, ________ (early/late) maturation may be especially troublesome. Describe several common problems and developmental hazards experienced by early-maturing girls.

Early
Early - maturing girls may be teased about their developing breasts. They tend to have older boyfriends, which may lead to drug and alcohol use; they have lower self-esteem, more depression and poorer body image than their classmates do; they exercise less; they engage in seual activity, which may result in teenage parenthood; and they have a greater risk of violent victimization.

For boys ______________________ (early/late/both early and late) maturation may be difficult. _________ (Early/Late) maturing boys are more _______________, ___________-________, and alcohold abusing. __________(Early/late) maturing boys tend to be more anxious, depressed,and afraid of sex.

both early and late; Early; aggressive; law breaking; Late.

Study tip: To consolidate your understanding of the major physical changes that accompany puberty,list, in order the major phsycial changes of puberty.
Girls ____________________________________ ________________________________________
Boys ___________________________________ ____________________________________________ _____________________________________

Gilrs: onset of breast growth, inital pubic hair, peak growth spurt,windening of the hips,first menstrual period, first ovulation, voice lowers, visible facial hair, completion of pubic-hair growth, and final breast development.
Boys: increased production of testosterone, growth of the testes and scrotum, initial pubic hair, growth of the penis, first ejaculation of seminal fluid, peak height spurt, peak muscle and organ growth, voice deepening, visible facial hair, and completion of pubic hair growth.

21) I am the hormone that causes the gonads to dramatically increase their production of sex hormones. I am ________________.

GnRH

23) Regarding the effects of early and late maturation on boys and girls, Is the following true.

d. Late-maturing boys tend to be more anxious than early-maturing girls or late-maturing boys.

24) Minica is 16 yrs old. Her parents are divorced and she lives with her mother in a city. It is most likely that she will experience puberty _______ than other teens, perhaps as a result of ______________

a. earlier; greater stress
Surprisingly, stress often results in an earlier onset of puberty.

25) I am the sex hormone that is secreted in greater amounts by females than males.I am _____________________

estradiol

26) Who is most likely to be distressed about their physical development?

b. early-maturing girls
Early-maturing girls tend to have lower self-esteem, more depression, and poorer body image than late-maturing girls.

27) Most teenagers _____(do/do not) consume the recommended daily does of iron, calcium, zinc, and other minerals. There is a direct link between deficient diets and the availability of _______ _______ in schools. Also _____- ____ establishments cluster around high schools.

do not; vending machines; fast-food

28) Another reason for dietary deficiencies is concern about ________ ______, defined as a person's idea of how ______________.

body image; his or her body looks

29) In an attempt to improve body image, many girls ______ ______ or take ____ ____, and many boys take _____.

eat erratically; diet pills; steroids

30) The disorder characterized by self-starvation is ______ _____. This disorder is suspected when a person's ___ ____ ____ is __________ (what percent?) or lower, or if the person loses more than _ of body weight within a month or two .

anorexia nervosa;body mass index; 18;10

31) Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed when four symptoms are present
a__________________
b. _________________
c.__________________
d.__________________

a. refusal to maintain a body wt that is at least 85% of normal BMI
b. intense fear of wt gain
c. disturbed body preception and denial of the problem
d. absence of menstruation

32) Two precursors of anorxeia are _______ and ______

nature(or genes);nurture(or a cultural obsession with thinness)

33) A more common eating disorder is ________ _______________, which is diagnosed when three symptons occur:

bulimia nervosa;
a. bingeing or purging at least once a wk for 3 months
b. uncontrollable urges to overeat
c. distored perception of body size

34) Five general elements that make disordered eating more likely are ________ ___________, __________,________,_______ and _______-________ _________.

cultural images; stress; puberty; homones; child-hood patterns

35) One family practice that seems to reduce the risk of adolescent eating disorders is _______________________________.

eating together during childhood

36) 13 yr old Kristin is more likely to

d. be iron deficient.
Many teenage girls, and some boys, suffer from anemia (iron deficiency).

37) A major _____spurt occurs in late childhood and early adolescene, during which growth proceeds from the ______________(core/extremities) to the ___________(core/extremities). At the same time, children begin to _____________(gain/lose) wt at a relatively rapid rate.

growth; extremities;core;gain

38) The amount of wt gain an individual experiences depends on several factors including 5 different reasons.

gender; heredity; diet; exercise;homones

39) During the growth spurt, a greater percentage of fat is retained by ___________ (males/females).

females

40) About a yr after the height and weight changes occur, a period of __________increase occurs, causing the pudginess and clumsiness of an earlier age to dissappear. In boys, this increase is particularly notable in the ______________.

muscle; arms

41) Internal organs also grow during puberty. The _______increase insize and capacity, the ________doubles in size, pulse rate _____(increases/decreases), and blood pressure ________________(increases/decreases), and blood pressure _____________(increases/decreases). These changes increase the adolescent' physical _____________.
Explain why the physical demands placed on a teenager, as in athletic training, should not be the same as those for a young adult of similar height and wt.

lungs; heart;decreases;increases;endurance
The fact that the more visible spurts of wt and height precede the less visible ones of the muscles and organs means that athletic training and wt. lifting should match the young person's size of a year earlier.

42) During puberty, one organ system, the ____________system, decreases in size, making teenagers __________(more/less) susceptible to respiratory ailments.

lymphoid; less

43) One secondary sex characterisitc that is mistakenly considered a sign of maleness is ____________ and ___________.

facial and chest hair

44) Changes in _____ _____ ____ involve the sex organs that are directly involved in reproduction. By the end of puberty, reproduction ____(is/is still not) possible.

primary sex characteristist; is

45) Sexual features other than those associated with reproduction are referred to as ________ _________ ________. Describe the major pubertal changes in the secondary sex characteristics of both sexes.

secondary sex chacteristics
Males grow taller than females and become wider at the shoulders than at the hips.
Females become wider at the hips, and their breasts begin to develop. Many boys experience some temporary breast enlargement.

46) Although sex hormones trigger thoughts about sexual intimacy, sexual behavior among teens reflects ____, ____, and _______more than biology

gender; culture;cohort

47) Sex has become less problematic among adolescents, as seen from the following; teen ________overall have decreased, the use of __________has risen, and the teen _______ rate has decreased.

births; contraception; abortion

48) A major developmental risk for sexually active adolescent girls is ___________. If the girl is under 16 , she is at increased risk of many complications, including ______ ________. Babies born to young parents have higher rates of _______, _____ ____,and ____ problems lifelong.

pregnancy;spontaneous abortion, hight blood pressure, stillbirth, preterm birth and a low-birthweight baby; medical; educational social

49) Any sexual activity between a juvenile and an older person is considered _______ _____ _____. This is more common in ________ ________than at any other time.

child sexual abuse; early puberty

50) ________(Girls/Boys) are particularly vulnerable to child sexual abuse.

Girls

51) Worldwide, sexually active teens have higher rates of diseases caused by sexual contact, called _______ _______ _______, than any other age group. One reason is that they do not have the natural ________ ______ that fully developed women have. Another reason is that they are unlikely to seek ___________.

sexually transmitted infections; biological defenses; treatment

52) The most fequently reported STI is __________. Another STI, called ___ ___ ___, has not immediate consequences but later increases a females risk of ______ ______ and death.

chlamydia; human papillomavirus (HPV) ; uterine cancer

53) Different parts of the brain grow at _________(the same/different) rates. The emotional control center, called ________ _________, matures ________(before/after) the ______ ______,where planning, ___________ regulation,and ______________ control occur.

different; limbic system; before; prefrontal cortex; emotional ; impulse

54) Early puberty ____________(increases/decreases/has not effect upon) emotional surges. This is because the ________ of puberty directly target the brain's ______. The emotional control areas of the brain are not fully developed until _____________.

increases; hormones; amygdala; adulthood

55) The benefits of adolescent brain development include increased _________ and slower _________, which make reactions much faster. The growth of neural _________ in the brain also enhances ________development.

myelination;inhibition;snapses;moral

56) Calvin, the class braggart, boasts that because his beard has begun to grow, he is more virile than his male classmates. Jacob informs him that

a. the tendency to grow facial and body hair has nothing to do with virility.

57) 11 yr old Lina, who has just begun to experience the first signs of puberty, laments."When will the agony of puberty be over?" You tell her that the major events of puberty typically end about ________ afer the first visible signs appear.

4 YEARS

PT 1: What describes the sequence of pubertal development in girls?

a. breasts and pubic hair; growth spurt in which fat is deposited on hips and buttocks; first menstrual period; ovulation

2. Although both sexes grow rapidly during adolescence, boys typically gain more than girls in their ____________

a. muscle strength
Girls gain more body fat than boys do.

3. For girls, the first readily observable sign of the onset of puberty is ______________.

a. the onset of breast growth

4. More than any other group in the population, adolescent girls are likely to have ________________.

c.anemia
This is because each menstrual period depletes some iron from the body.

5. The HPA axis is the _________________

a. route followed by many hormones to regulate stress, growth, sleep, and appetite.
B. A pair of gland in humans describes the gonads
C.Cascade of sex horones in females and males: these include estradiol and testosterone.
d. area of the brain that regulatess the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus

6. For males, the secondary sex characteristics that usually occurs last is

d. the final growth of pubic hair

7. For girls, the specific vent that is taken to indicate fertility is ___________; for boys, it is ______________.

b. menarche; spermarche

8. The most significant hormonal changes of puberty include an increase of _____in _______ and an increase of ______in ______.

d. estradiol; girls; testosterone; boys

9. A child who is malnourished will likely

b.begin menache later than the normal age range

10. Dr. Ramirez suspects Jennifer may be suffering from anorexia nervosa because her BMI is _______

a. lower than 18
b. lower than 25: This is a healthy BMI...
c. higher than 25: These BMI's are associated with being overweight.

11. Today, adolescence tends to begin ____ ______ and end _____ _______.

b. earlier biologically;later sociologically

12. Early physical growth and sexual maturation tend to be ___________________.

c. tend to be more difficult for girls than for boys

13. Pubertal changes in growth and maturation typially are complete how long afer puberty begins?

c. four years

14. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis triggers _________,_______ _________.

d. puberty, the growth spurt and the development of sexual characterististics

15. One reason adolescents like intensity, excitement, and risk taking is that __________________________-

a. the limbic system matures faster than the prefrontal cortex
Brain maturation is asynchronous.
D. puberty is occuring at a younger age today than in the past: This may be true, but it doesn't explain why adolescents have always liked intensity and excitement....

T/F 1. The secular trend is as strong today as ever.

F
the secular trend has stopped in developed nations....

2. During puberty, hormonal bursts lead to quick emotional extremes. T/F

T

3. The first indicator of reproductive potential in males is menarche. T/F

F
The first indicator of reproductive potential in males is ejaculation of seminal fluid containing sperm(spermarche). Menarch (the first menstrualperiod) is the first indication of reproductive potential in females.

4. Lung capacity, heart size,and blood pressure increase significantly during adolescence.

T

5. Puberty generaly begins sometimes between ages 8 and 14.

T

6. Girls are about 2 yrs ahead of boys in height as well as sexually and hormonally.

F
hormonally and sexually, girls are ahead by only a few months.

7. During the growth sput, peak height usually precedes peak wt.

F
During the growth spurt, peak weight usually precedes peak height.

8. Only adolescent girls suffer from anemia.

F
Boys also suffer from anemia, expecially if they engage in physical labor or competitve sports.

9. Early- maturing girls tend to have lower self-esteem.

T

10. Both the sequence and timing of pubertal events vary greatly from one young person to another.

F
although there is great variation in the timing of pubertal events, the sequence is very similar for all young people

PT2. 1) Give the 6 things in pattern of pubertal events for boys.

b. pubic hair, first ejaculation, growth spurt, deepening of voice, facial hair, pubic hair.

2) Do hands and feet lengthen before Arms and legs _____(T/F), Do facial features usually grow before the head itself reaches adult size and shape?

T;
During adolescense, the lymphoid sysem decresase in size and the heart doubles in size.

3) In puberty, a hormone that increases markedly in girls (and only somewhat in boys) is

a. estradiol
Testosterone increases markedly in boys,
Testosterone is the best known of the androgens (the general category of male hormones)
Menarche is the first menstrual period.

4) Nutritional deficiencies in adolescence are frequently the result of

b. poor eating habits.

5) In females, puberty is typically marked by a (n)

b. significant widening of the hips
The shoulders of males tend to widen during puberty.
The torso typically lengthens during puberty.
The eyes and nose increase in size during pubety.

6) Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as the deepening of the voice and the development of breasts, are called

c. secondary sex characeristics.
a. (gender-typed traits) although not a term used in the textbook a gender-typed trait is one that is typical of one sex but not the other.
b. primary sex characteristics are those involving the reproductive organs.
d. (pubertal prototypes)This is not a term used by developmental psychologists.

7) Puberty is initiated when hormones are released from the ____________,then from the ___________gland, and then from the adrenal glands and the ___________.

a. hypothalamus; pituitary ; gonads

8) If a girl under age 15 becomes pregnant, she is at greater risk for ________________

d.. a low-birthweight baby, high blood pressure and stillbirth.

9) During adolescence, reactions become faster partly as a result of the brain's

a. increase myelination and increased inhibition.

10) The HPG axis is the

a. route followed by many hormones to affect the body's shape and functioning.
b. Gonads are sex gland pr of sex glands in humans.
c&d :cascade of sex hormones in females and males & area of he brain that regulates the pituitary gland -- hormones and brain areas are involved in the HPG axis,which describes the route taken by the hormones.

11) The number of victims of sexual abuse is greatest among children ages:

a. 12 - 15

12) An example of the secular trend is

c. earlier growth of children due to improved nutrition and medical care.

13) Puberty is most accurately defined as the period of

c. rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood.

14) Which of the following does NOT typicaly occur during puberty?

b. The heart's size and rate of beating increase.
Although the size of the heart increases during puberty,heart rate decreases.

15) Teengers' susceptibility to respiratory ailments typically __________________(increase/decrease) during adolescence, due to a____________(increase/decrease) in the size off the lymphoid system.

d. decreases; decrease.

Matching Items: 1) puberty

b. period of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood

2. gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

d. hormone that causes the gonads to enlarge and increase their production of sex hormones.

3. testosterone

k. hormone that increases dramatically in boys during puberty

4. estradiol

e. hormone that increases dramatically in girls during puberty

5. growth spurt

first sign is increased bone length

6. primary sex characterisitics

i. the sex organs involved in reproduction

7. menarche

a. Onset of menstruation ( a period)

8. spermarche

j. first ejaculation containing sperm
8 to 13 yrs old

9. secondary sex characterisitcs

l. physical characterisitics not involved in reproduction

10. body image

gratitude toward one's physical appearance

11. anorexia nerosa

c. an affliction characterized by self-starvation

12. bulimia nervosa

h. an affliction charaterized by bing-perge eating.

Key Terms: 1. puberty

is the period of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood and brings the young person to adult size, shape, and sexual potential.

2. menarche

refers to the first menstrual period, signals that the adolescent girl has begun ovulation

3. spermarche

refers to the first ejaculation of sperm, signals sperm production in adolescent boyds.

4. hormone

is an organic chemical substance produced by one body tissue that travels via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function.

5. pituitary

is a gland in the braiin that responds to a biochemical signal from the hypothalamus by producing hormones that regulate growth and control other glands.

6. adrenal glands

are 2 glands, located above the kidneys, that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that prepare the body to deal with stress.

7. HPA axis

(hypothalamus - pituitary-adrenal) axis is the route allowed by many hormones to trigger puberty and to regulate responses to stress,growth, and other bodily changes.

8. gonads

are paired sex glands in humans - the ovaries in females and the testes, or testicles, in males.

9. HPG axis

HPG (hypthalamus-pituitary-gonads) axis is the route followed by many hormones to affect the body's shape and functioning.

10. estradiol

Estradiol is a sex hormone that is secreted in much greater amounts of females than by males; considered the chief estrogen.

11. testosterone

is a sex hormone that is secreteted much more by males than by females; considered the best-known androgen.

12. secular trend

is the long-term upward or downward directions of a certain set of statistical measurements. For example, it is the tendency toward earlier and large growth that has occurred among adolescents over the past two centuries.

13. leptin

is a hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty.

14. body image

is a person's concept of his or her body's appearance.

15. anorexia nervosa

is an eating disorder characterized by self-starvation.

16.bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder charaterized binge eating and subsquent purging.

17. growth spurt

which is the relatively sudden and rapid physical growth of every part of the body, is one of the many observable signs of puberty.

18. primary sex characeristics

During puberty, changes in the primary sex characteristics involve those sex organs that are directly involved in reproduction.

19. secondary sex characteristics

During puberty, changes in the secondary sex characteristics involve parts of the body that are not directly involved in reproduction but that signify sexual maturity.

20. child sexual abuse

is any erotic acitvity that arouses an adult and excites, shames, or confuses a child-even if the abuse does not involve genital contact.

21. sexual transmitted infections (STIs)

such as syphilis, gonorrhea, gential herpes, chlamydia, and HIV, are those that are spread by sexual contact.

PT 2; 1. What is the correct sequence of pubertal events in boys?

b. growth spurt, pubic hair, facial hair, first ejaculation, pubic hair, deepening of voice

2. Which of the following statements about adolescent physical devlopment is NOT true?

Hands and feet generally lengthen before arms and legs. & Facial features usually grow before the head itself reaches adult size and shape. & Oil, sweat, and odor glands become more active.
d. is false everything else true

3. In puberty, a hormone that increases markedly in girls (and only somewhat in boys) is

a.estradiol
Testosterone increases markedly in boys,
Testosterone is the best known of the androgens (the general category of male hormones).
Menarche is the first menstrual period

4. Nutritional deficincies in adolescence are fequently the result of

b.poor eating habits

5. In females,puberty is typically marked by a

b. significant widening of the hips
the shoulders of males tend to widen during puberty.
The torso typically lengthens during puberty.
The eyes and nose increase in size during puberty.

6. Nonreproductive sexual characterisitics, such as the deepening of the voice and the development of breasts, are called _____ _____ ____

c. secondary sex characteristics.
Although not a term used in the textbook a gender-typed trait is one that is typical of one sex but not the other.
Primary sex characterisitcs are those involving the reproductive organs.

7. Puberty is initiated when hormones are released from the ______, then from the _____gland, and then from the adrenal glands and the _____________.

a. hypothalamus; pituitary; gonads

8. If a girl under age 15 become pregnant, she is at greater risk for

d. a low-birthweight baby, hight blood pressure, stillbirth

9. During adolescence, reactions become faster partly as a result of the brain's _____________.

a. increased myelination and reduced inhibition.

10. The HPG axis is the

a. route followed by many hormones to affect the body's shape and functioning.
The gonads are sex gland
Hormons and brain areas are involved in the HPG axis, which describes the route taken by hormones.

11. (Table 14.1) The number of victims of sexual abuse is greatest among children ages:

a.12 to 15

12. An example of the secular trend is

c. earlier growth of children due to improved nutrition and medical care

13) Puberty is most accurately defined as the period

c. of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood

14) Which of the following does NOT typically occur during puberty?

b. The heart's size and rate of beating increase.
Although the size of the heart increases during puberty, heart rate decreases

15. Teenagers' susceptibility to respiratory ailments typically ________________during adolescence,due to a (n) ___________ in the size of the lymphoid system.

d. decreases; decrease

Cross check: 1. adrenal

glands near the kidneys that are stimulated by the pitutiary at the beginning of puberty.

6. spermarche

The first esculation of seminal fluid containing sperm.

10. menarche

the first menstrual periods

13. gonads

The ovaries in girls and the testes or testicles in boys.

14. pituitary

Gland the stimulates the adrenal glands and the sex glands in responses to a signal from the hypothalamus

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