Abeka 10th Grade Biology Review Chapters 13-18

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This set is designed to help the student prepare for the Abeka 10th Grade Biology : God's Living Creation nine-week exam over Chapters 13-18.

animals

living organisms that move from place to place primarily to obtain food

motile

capable of motion

sessile

attached to one location

bilateral symmetry

symmetry in which the two halves of an organism are virtually identical

asymmetrical

without symmetry

vertebrates

animals with a backbone

gizzard

muscular organ in birds that grinds food

invertebrates

animals without a backbone

endoskeleton

internal skeleton

tetrapods

animals with four appendages

mammary glands

cells that produce milk

homeothermic

term for "maintaining the same temperature"

blastula

a hollow sphere of cells

placenta

connects the embryo to the uterus

amniotic fluid

fluid that surrounds and protects the embryo

fetus

stage in development when the embryo can be recognized as a young individual

gestation period

period of growth from fertilization to birth

umbilical cord

connects the fetus to the placenta

viviparous mammals

mammals that bear their young alive

oviparous mammals

mammals that lay eggs

elephants

the largest living land animals

tusks

enlarged incisor teeth (such as in elephants)

mammals

animals that are warm-blooded; have hair, mammary glands, and a four-chambered heart; and breathe by means of lungs

echidna and duck-billed platypus

the only oviparous mammals

ai (three-toed sloth)

the slowest land mammal

diurnal

active during the day

nocturnal

active at night

marsupials

pouched mammals

marsupium

abdominal pouch

kangaroo

the largest living marsupial

insectivorous

means "insect-eating"

insectivores

shrews, moles, and hedgehogs

pygmy shrew

the smallest mammal

bat

longest-hibernating mammal

blue whale

the largest animal

spermaceti

waxy substance found on sperm whales' heads

ambergris

waxy substance found in a sperm whale's intestines

apes

primates without tails

hoofs

enlarged and thickened toenails

extinct

means "no longer found alive on the earth"

ornithologists

zoologists who study birds

bipedal

two-footed

game birds

birds that are hunted

flightless birds

birds that cannot fly

tropical birds

birds living in tropical forests

flight feathers

contour feathers that help a bird to fly

down feathers

soft, fluffy feathers that insulate the bird's body

materialism

the false idea that the universe consists of nothing but matter and energy

contour feathers

strong feathers on the bird's body, wings, and tail

nictitating membrane

transparent membrane over a bird's eye

cloaca

area in birds that prepares waste for elimination

bursa of Fabricius

area in birds that produces lymphocytes

syrinx

a bird's voice box

incubation

keeping birds' eggs warm

poikilotherms

animals with varied temperatures

lizards

elongated, four-footed reptiles with tapered tails

ovoviparous reptiles

reptiles that "bring forth alive from eggs"

lateral undulation

method of moving in which a snake keeps its body flat on the ground and bends it

rectilinear movement

method of movement in which a snake alternately stretches and shortens segments of its body

side-winding movement

method of movement in which a snake moves its body sideways

instinct

unlearned knowledge possessed from birth

black mamba

the fastest known snake

ecology

the study of how living things interact with each other and their environment

biotic factors

living things in a habitat

abiotic factors

non-living things in a habitat

biosphere

area of Earth's surface in which life exists

ecosystem

an interrelated network of all organisms and their environment within a limited area

terrestrial and aquatic

two categories of ecosystems

community

all the living things in an ecosystem

carrying capacity

the ability of an ecosystem to support its biodiversity

population

a group of organisms of the same species living in the same ecosystem

organisms

individual living things

biodiversity

the number and variety of species living within an ecosystem

herbivores

plant-eaters

carnivores

meat (animal)-eaters

omnivores

plant and animal-eaters

producers

make their own food

consumers

cannot make their own food and obtain energy from other sources

niche

the function or "occupation" of a living thing

trophic level

describes a feeding relationship between organisms

food chain

shows nutritional relationships among organisms in an ecosystem

primary consumers

eat plants

secondary consumers

eat herbivores

energy, biomass, and number

three types of ecosystem pyramids

symbiosis

"living together"

mutualism

relationship in which both organisms benefit

parasitism

relationship in which one organism is helped and the other is harmed

commensalism

relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped

predation

relationship in which one organism kills the other

hydrologic cycle

evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

Charles Lyell

founder of uniformitarianism

uniformitarianism

belief that the present is the only key to the past

natural selection

"survival of the fittest"

Aristotle

Greek philosopher who developed the doctrine of intellect

speciation

changes within a particular kind of organism

macroevolution

process by which new creatures supposedly emerge from existing ones over time

paleontology

the study of fossils

transitional forms

"missing links"

punctuated equilibrium

the belief that evolution occurred in sudden spurts

geologic column

imaginary arrangement of fossils in time order

radiometric dating

technique of dating fossils

embryonic recapitulation

false theory that a human embryo goes through stages of development resembling man's "evolution"

mutations

random errors in an organism's genetic code

peppered moth

insect used as "proof" for evolution

Gaia hypothesis

false hypothesis that the earth and all organisms that inhabit it make up one living thing

spontaneous generation

the false idea that living things can arise from non-living things

coelacanth

once thought by evolutionists to be a "missing link" between fish and amphibians

Archaeopteryx

extinct bird sometimes wrongly cited as a "missing link" between reptiles and birds

Andreas Vesalius

the "Father of Anatomy"

physiology

study of the function of body structures

doctrine of intellect

belief that speculation is the highest form of reality

John Wilkins

founded the Royal Society of London

Plato

Greek philosopher who put together the doctrine of ideas

capybara

the largest rodent

apes

primates without tails

rodents

small, gnawing mammals with two sharp teeth

flying lemur

the longest-gliding mammal

California condor

the largest living land bird of North America

peregrine

the fastest of any living creature

contour feathers

feathers that provide a bird's streamlined shape

rachis

quill of a feather

cerebrum

the seat of a bird's intelligence

cerebellum

responsible for the bird's muscle coordination

cold-blooded animals

animals that regulate their temperatures by external factors

quadrate bone

bone that attaches a snake's skull to its lower jaw

Jacobson's organ

two tiny odor-sensitive cavities in a snake's mouth

herpetologists

zoologists who study reptiles and amphibians

pythons, anacondas, and boas

the three largest snakes

fangs

hollow or grooved venom-injecting teeth

elapids

poisonous snakes with immovable fangs in their upper jaws

king cobra

the largest venomous snake

neurotoxin

nerve poison

hemotoxin

blood poison

turtle

a reptile with a shell and toothless jaws

carapace

a turtle's upper shell

plastron

a trurtle's lower shell

estivation

a state of summer dormancy or limited activity

marine turtles

the largest living turtles

tortoise

land turtle

crocodilians

the largest living reptiles

tuatara

spiny-crested reptile

parietal eye

"third eye" on the head of a tuatara to sense radiation

dinosaurs

a large group of extinct reptile-like creatures

amphibians

cold-blooded vertebrates that live both on land and in water

three-chambered heart

type of heart a vertebrate possesses

frogs

leaping, tailless amphibians with smooth skin

toads

leaping, tailless amphibians with rough, warty skin

chromatophores

branched pigment cells that control skin coloration of amphibians, reptiles, and fish

amplexus

process by which most frogs are fertilized

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