A field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes and problem solving.
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
Mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture -like quality.
Ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events or activities.
The most general form of a type of concept such as "animal" or "fruit".
An example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept.
Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and believing in certain ways.
Very specific, step by step procedures for solving certain types of problems.
An educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as a " rule of thumb".
Heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.
A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.
The tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
The tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.
Type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic.
Type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point.
The ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.
Formula used to find intelligence
IQ = MA / CA x 100
Howard Gardner's idea of multiple intelligences
Gardener believes that there other aspects of intelligence other than reason, knowledge and logic. He states there are nine of them: Verbal/linguistic, Musical, Logical/mathematical, Visual/spatial, Movement, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalist and Existentialist.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative and practical.
The ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving.
The tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people.
The degree to which a test actually measures what it's supposed to measure.
The scores from the standardization group; the standards against which all others who take the test would be compared.
The Four Elements involved in diagnosing someone as being developmentally delayed.
1. Intellectual and adaptive behavior skills.
2. Psychological and emotional considerations.
3. Physical and health considerations.
4. Environmental considerations.
condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age. A more acceptable term for mental retardation
linguistic relatively hypothesis
The theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language.
Theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language.
The ability of the brain to build and maintain new neurons and the connections between them.