-designed to test whether southern states would obey the Supreme Court ruling and allow African Americans to exercise the rights newly granted to them.
-the first group had 13 people (both white and black) and departed from Washington DC. At first, they only encountered minor conflicts, but as they headed for the Deep South, the tires were poked at to create holes and a firebomb was thrown into the bus.
James Meredith and "Ole Miss"
-African American Air Force veteran
-stundent at Jackson State College, but wanted to transfer to the all-white Unitversity of Mississippi, known as "Ole Miss"
-was rejected and got help from the NAACP
-Supreme Court upheld this person's claim; however, the Mississippi Governor declared this person couldn't enroll
-a Reverand and the head of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights
-invited Martin Luther King, Jr. and the SCLC to visit the city of Birmingham in 1963.
-planned boycotts with King of downtown stores and attempts to integrate local churches
-"The most segregated city in American"
-Martin Luther King and Shuttlesworth worked at integrated places. They also planned boycotts on downtown stores.
Eugene "Bull" Connor
-a determined segregationist
-arrested Martin Luther King for disobeying court orders and setting an example of Civil Disobedience
-arrested more than 900 of the young people who marched along with the adults in the effort to stop segregation.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
-A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
-A man that was against integration.
"segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever."
Election of 1960
-a race between Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy
-John F. Kennedy won many African American votes by offering to help Martin Luther King, Jr. while he was in prison camp. John's younger brother, Robert, persuaded the Georgia sentencing judge to release King on bail.
OUTCOME: Kennedy wins and Nixon loses.
-civil rights leader that was gunned outside of his house, several hours after Kennedy's broadcast regarding brutality in Birmingham.
-had been an NAACP field secretary in Mississippi.
-worked on recruiting NAACP memebers and organized various voter-registration drives throughout the state.
-the timing of this murder made it clear that the government needed to take action
March on Washington
-to focus national attention on Kennedy's bill, civil rights leaders proposed a march.
-more than 200,000 people came from all over the country to call for "jobs and freedom," the official slogan for this event.
-A. Philip Randolph directed this event
-many celebrities and well known people showed up such as: James Baldwin, Sammy Davis, Jr., and baseball star Jackie Robinson.
-after many songs and speeches, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave one of his most famous speeches, the "I have a dream...." speech.
-a tactic in which senators prevent a vote on a measure by taking the floor and refusing to stop talking
Civil Rights Act of 1964
-impacted many areas including: voting, schools and jobs.
- gave the Justice Department the authority to act vigorously in school desegregation and voting rights cases.
-had four 'titles'
-in 1964, civil rights leaders organized a voter registration drive in Mississippi.
- About a thousand African American and white colunteers, mostly college students, joined in what came to be called as this.
-Soon, three young civil rights workers, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner, were reported missing. Later in the summer, FBI agents found their bodies buried in a new earthen dam, a few miles from where their burned-out station wagon had been found.
-One of three young civil rights workers that was murdered and buried.
-These three murders were only part of the turbulence reported that summer.
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
-organized by newly registered voters in this state, along with member of the SNCC
-sent delegates to the Democratic national convention in the summer of 1964.
Fanie Lou Hamer
-a delegate that lost her job on a cotton plantation when she tried to register to vote.
-King and other leaders decided to organize this event because black southerners were still having trouble obtaining their voting rights in Alabama. Black people were still getting arrested for just standing in line to vote.
-as the people set out on Sunday morning, 1965, armed state troopers on horseback charged into the crowd with whips, clubs, and tear gas. TV pictures of the attack again shocked many viewers.
-as a result of the violence, President Johnson put the Alabama National Guard under federal control.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
-under this act, federal officials could register voters in places where local officials were blocking registration by African Americans.
-this also effectively eliminated literacy tests and other barriers. In the year after this was passed, more than 400,000 African Americans registered to vote in the Deep South.
-outlawed the poll tax, which was still being used in several southern states to keep poor African Americans from voting.