The process by which activities are started, directed and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.
Type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person.
Types of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner.
The biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exists in both people and animals.
Approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal.
Those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst.
acquired (secondary) drives
Those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval.
The tendency of the body to maintain a steady state.
need for power
The need to have control or influence over others.
A requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism.
A psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.
need for achievement
A need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones.
Theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation.
Law stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance that do levels of arousal that are too low or too high. This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: Easy tasks require a high-moderate level whereas more difficult tasks require a low-moderate.
Things that attract or lure people into action.
Incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding the beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment in time.
Theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action.
weight set point
The particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain.
basal metabolic rate
The rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting.
A condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs.
A condition in which a person develops a cycle of "binging", or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and "purging," or deliberately vomiting after eating.
The "feeling" aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings.
the common sense theory of emotion
In the common sense theory of emotion, a stimulus (snarling dog) leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to bodily arousal (in this case, indicated by shaking) through the autonomic nervous system.
Theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion.
Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion
Theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time.
Schachter's Cognitive Arousal theory of Emotion
Theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced.
Lazarus's theory of emotions
In Lazarus's cognitive-mediational theory of emotion, a stimulus causes an immediate appraisal (e.g., "The dog is snarling and not behind a fence, so this is dangerous"). The cognitive appraisal results in an emotional response, which is then followed by the appropriate bodily response.
Theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction.