The __________ studies were sociological case studies of the City of Muncie in Indiana conducted by Robert Staughton Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, husband-and-wife sociologists. The Lynds' findings were detailed in Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture, published in 1929, and Middletown in Transition : A Study in Cultural Conflicts, published in 1937. "Middletown" means the average or typical American small city.
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
Teapot Dome Scandal
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "____________" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
He was the head of the Food Administration during World War I. He became the Secretary of Commerce and encouraged businesses to regulate themselves. _______ was a Republican known for his integrity who won the election of 1928. He had to deal with the Great Crash of 1929, which caused the Great Depression. He signed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act. His belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.
became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
Election of 1920
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Election of 1924
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
he made assembly line production more efficient in his Rouge River plant near Detroit- a finished car would come out every 10 seconds. He helped to make car inexpensive so more Americans could buy them.
refers either to the combination of a capitalist economic system with a welfare state or, in the American context, to the practice of businesses providing welfare-like services to employees. ________________ in this second sense, or industrial paternalism, was centered in industries that employed skilled labor and peaked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles _____ formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
Naval Arms Conference and the 5:5:3:1.75:1.75 plan
a military conference called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. It resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty, and the Nine-Power Treaty and a number of smaller agreements. Included a plan that established the ratios of tonnage for naval ships between powers.
Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Buying "on time"
when payment is spread out over a period in many installations of payment
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
nicknamed Satchmo or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter and singer from New Orleans, Louisiana. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" cornet and trumpet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the music's focus from collective improvisation to solo performance.
Sometimes referred to as The Empress of the Blues, she was the most popular female blues singer of the 1920s and 1930s. She is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and, along with Louis Armstrong, a major influence on subsequent jazz vocalists.
was a composer, pianist, and big band leader. __________ wrote over 1,000 compositions. In the words of Bob Blumenthal of the Boston Globe "In the century since his birth, there has been no greater composer, American or otherwise, than ________________."
invention that allowed mass-marketing and music and shows to be heard throughout America
Amos and Andy
__________ is a situation comedy based on stock sketch comedy characters but set in the African-American community. It was very popular in the United States from the 1920s through the 1950s on both radio and television. ____________ began as one of the first radio comedy series
Black Sox scandal
an incident that took place around and during the play of the 1919 World Series. The name "________" also refers to the 1919 Chicago White Sox team. Eight members of the major league franchise were banned for life from baseball for throwing (i.e., intentionally losing) games, and essentially giving the series to the Cincinnati Reds.
set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season, baseball hero
the heavyweight boxing champion, boxing hero
an American amateur golfer, and a lawyer by profession. Jones was the most successful amateur golfer ever to compete on a national and international level. During his peak as a golfer from 1923 to 1930, he dominated top-level amateur competition, and competed very successfully against the world's best professional golfers.
flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Ford Model T
____ developed the mass-produced _______, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.
favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.
Emergency Immigration Act of 1921
This law restricted immigration to 3% of each nationality that was in the United States in 1910.
National Origins Act (1927)
a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890.
Birth of a Nation (1915)
high-grossing silent film, and remains, highly controversial due to its portrayal of African American men (played by white actors in blackface) as unintelligent and sexually aggressive towards white women, and the portrayal of the Ku Klux Klan as a heroic force. There were widespread protestsagainst The Birth of a Nation, and it was banned in several cities. The film is also credited as one of the events which inspired the formation of the "second era" Ku Klux Klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia in the same year. Indeed, The Birth of a Nation was used as a recruiting tool for the KKK.
Ku Klux Klan
In the 1920s this group was very anti-foreign. It was against all groups which did not have a protestant background. They were most prevalent in the Midwest and the south. They eventually became less popular when ______ officials were caught embezzling money.
(1863-1935) Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Aimee Semple McPherson
also called Sister Aimee, was a Los Angeles, California evangelist and media celebrity in the 1920s and 1930s. She founded the Foursquare Church. ________ has been noted as a pioneer in the use of modern media, especially radio, which she drew upon through the growing appeal of popular entertainment in North America.
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John ________, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when ________ questioned Bryan about the Bible.
banned the sale of alcohol
illegal bars during Prohibition where people would drink alcohol
implemented the 18th Amendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%.
notorious Chicago gangster around the time of Prohibition
T. S. Eliot The Wasteland
One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.
Ernest Hemingway fought in Italy in 1917. He later became a famous author who wrote "The Sun Also Rises" (about American expatriates in Europe) and "A Farewell to Arms." In the 1920's he became upset with the idealism of America versus the realism he saw in World War I. He was very distraught, and in 1961 he shot himself in the head.
The "Lost Generation"
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a ______________," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.