(1913-1999) Strange Situation: to observe attachment relationships between infants and mothers.
Securely attached: well adjusted, form successful social relationships, and perform better at school
Insecurely attached: form shallow relationships, appear withdrawn, and sometimes display a strong need for affection
(1905-1981) developmental psychologist that conducted famous experiments on rhesus monkeys. He gave orphaned baby monkeys two artificial surrogate "mothers". Clothed "mother" provided no milk but offered a soft terrycloth cover. A wire "mother" provided milk but offered no contact comfort. He placed a frightening stimulus into the cage, monkeys ran to the cloth mother. His research contradicted the common belief that bodily contact would spoil children. He concluded that the stimulation and reassurance derived from the physical touch of a parent or caregiver play a key role in developing healthy physical growth and normal socialization.
(1903-1989) regarded as the founder of ethology, the comparative study of animal behavior (including humans) and their natural surroundings. He earned widespread recognition for his study of imprinting and aggression. He concluded that the mechanism inhibiting aggression works less well in humans than among other species.
(1896-1980) Swiss psychologist whose theories of cognitive development have had a profound impact upon our understanding of how the mind develops. Focused on the rational, perceiving child who has the capacity to make sense of the world. His stage theory describes how infants, children, and adolescents use distinctly different cognitive abilities to understand the world. 4 distinctive stages marking fundamental change on how child understands the world.
(1896-1934) placed particular emphasis on how culture and social interactions with parents and other significant people influenced a child's cognitive development. According to him, children learn their culture''s habits of mind through internalization.
(1927) best know for her work on parenting styles. 3 styles based on "parental responsiveness" and "parental demandingness." Permissive parents set few rules, minimal demands, and allow children to reach their own decisions. Authoritative parents set firm rules, reasonable demands, and listen to child's viewpoint while insisting on responsible behavior. Authoritarian parents set rigid rules, enforce strict punishments, and rarely listen to child's viewpoint.
(1902-1994) Social development theory. As we progress from infancy to old age, we enter 8 psychosocial stages of development. The stages corresponds to physical change and takes place in a distinctive setting. Combo of physiological change and new social environments creates a psychosocial crisis that can be resolved with either a positive or negative response. He was interested in adolescent's struggle to overcome role confusion and find an identity. The phase know as "identity crisis" describes how adolescents struggle to create meaningful sense of identity.
(1927-1987) American psychologist who used hypothetical moral dilemmas to study moral reasoning. His influential theory of the stages of moral development is a milestone in developmental psychology.
(1936) critic of Kohlberg's theory of moral development. In a Different Voice, she argued that the participants in Kohlberg's basic study were all male. She contended that the scoring method he used tended to favor a principled way of reasoning that was more common to boys. The moral concerns of women focus on caring and compassion according to her.
(1870-1937) Known as a Neo-Freudian, he pioneered the use of psychiatry in both social work and early childhood education. He introduced such fundamental mental health concepts as "inferiority feeling," "life-style," "striving for superiority," and "social interest." He tried to help his patients "see the power of self-determination" and "command the courage" to alter their interpretation of events and life experiences.
(1875-1961) Neo-Freudian who developed the concept of the collective unconsciousness. The collective unconsciousness includes shared human experiences embodied in myths and cultural archetypes, such as a wise grandfather, the innocent child, and the rebellious son. He influenced psychological thinking about humans as symbol-using beings.
(1902-1987) Rejected Freud's pessimistic view of human nature. He offered the optimistic view that people are innately good and "positive, forward-moving, constructive, realistic, trustworthy." He argued that self-concept is the cornerstone of a person's personality. People whose self-concept matches their life experiences usually have high self-esteem and better mental health. Influenced by Maslow, he believed that people are motivated to achieve their full potential or self-actualize.
Paul Costa and Robert McCrae
(1942 & 1949) Both are personality theorists best know for developing the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The "Big Five Model" identifies openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism as broad domains or dimensions of personality. The five dimensions represent the basic structure behind all personality traits.
(1822-1911) multifaceted British psychologist who applied statistics to the variations in human abilities. Developed the statistical concept of correlation and was the first to demonstrate that the normal distribution could be applied to intelligence
(1863-1945) Observed that an individual's scores on various tests of intellectual performance correlated with one another. People who performed well on a test of one mental ability, such as mathematical reasoning, tend to also do well on test of verbal ability. He proposed that intelligence is a single, underlying factor, which he termed general intelligence or the g factor.
(1949) best know for his triarchic theory of intelligence. The triarchic model distinguishes among analytic, creative, and practical intelligences. Believed each of the 3 is learned and can be developed and enhanced.
(1943) know for his theory of multiple intelligences. Believed that there are a number of intelligences including linguistic, logic-mahematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
(1857-1911) Invented the first usable intelligence test. Made an important distinction between a child's mental and chronological ages.
(1877-1956) Pioneer in educational psychology who is best know as the inventor of the Standord-Binet IQ test. He computed a child's intelligence quotient or IQ by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100. Conducted a longitudinal study of gifted children.
(1896-1981) developed a series of widely used intelligence tests. He determined how far a person's score deviates from a bell shaped normal distribution of scores instead of IQ.
(1802-1887) American reformer. Documented the deplorable conditions of how states cared for their insane poor. Her single-minded zeal helped persuade state legislatures to create the first generation of American mental hospitals.
(1813-2007) renowned for developing the principles and procedures of rational emotive therapy. Help clients dispute irrational beliefs and replace them with more rational interpretations of events.
(1921) widely regarded as the father of cognitive therapy. pioneered theories are widely used to treat clinical depression.
Mary Cover Jones
(1896-1987) conducted pioneering research in applying behavioral techniques to therapy. often called "the mother of behavior therapy"
(1915-1997) inspired by Mary Cover Jones to prefect a technique for treating anxiety-producing phobias that he named systematic desensitization. first taught his clients how to maintain a state of deep relaxation. He and his clients than created a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing images and situations. They began with threatening experience and then gradually worked their way up to the top level of the anxiety producing hierarchy.
(1919-1989) Known for formulating the theory of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is the state of psychological tension and anxiety that occurs when an individual's attitudes and behaviors are inconsistent.
(1933) textbook author and developer of Discovering Psychology. known for the Stanford Prison Experiment. The experiment illustrated how the process of deindividuation led to reduction of personal responsibility and abuse of power. His findings have been applied to the US military abuses in 2004 at Iraq's Abu Ghraib Prison
(1907-1996) widely recognized as one of the pioneers in developing social psychology as an academic discipline. His study of conformity provided a vivid demonstration of how individuals respond to the social pressures and expectations of others.
(1933-1984) famous and controversial study of obedience to authority comprises one of the largest research programs in the history of social psychology. He transformed our understanding of human nature by demonstrating that ordinary citizens were willing to obey an authority figure who instructed them to administer electric shocks to an innocent "learner." Transformed the understanding of proper code of ethics that should be used in psychological research.
a British naturalist whose controversial and groundbreaking theory of evolution had a significant influence on the early development of psychology; Natural selection continues to influence the modern evolutionary perspective.
A German scientist who established the first psychology research lab. He pioneered a research method called introspection in which his subjects reported detailed descriptions of their own conscious mental experiences.
a Harvard professor who played a key role in establishing psychology in the US. He emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, the experience of emotion follows a three-part sequence beginning with the perception of a stimulus. This triggers physiological arousal, which is interpreted as a specific emotion.
G. Stanley Hall
After studying psychology under Willaim James, He established America's fisrt psychology lab. He served as the first president of the American Psychological Association.
Mary Whiton Calkins
Like Hall, she studied psychology under William James. Denied a Ph.D. at Harvard in psychology, she established a psychological lab at Wellesley College. She served as the first elected female president of the American Psychological Association.
Margaret Floy Washburn
She holds the distinction of being the first American woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology. She is best known for her experimental work in animal behavior.
He ranks as one of the msot influential thinkers of the 20th century. He founded the pyschoanlytic school of psychological thought and developed the theory of personaity that emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and psychological disorders. He placed special emphasis on how childhood experiences influenced adult persnality. He believed that dreams provided a particularly emportant insight into unconscious motives.
John B. Watson
An America psychologist who departed from Wundt and the early psychologists by emphasizing the scientific study of observable behaviors rather than the study of subjective mental processes. One of the founders of Behaviorism.
a French physician and anatomist who discovered that the speech production center of the brain is located in an area of the lower left frontal lobe. Today, this area in the left cerebral hemisphere is referred to as (last name)'s area. The discovery of the area revolutionized the understanding of speech production.
He was a German neurologist and psychiatrist who discovered that damage on an area on the left frontal lobe caused deficits in language comprehension.
He is best known for his pioneering research with split-brain patients. He demonstrated that the brain's right and left hemispheres have specialized functions.
He continued Roger Sperry's research by advancing understanding of how the two cerebral hemispheres communicate with one another.
Ernst Heinrich Weber
He was a German physician who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND) and what we now call (last name)'s Law which holds that for each sense, the size of the JND will vary depending on its relation to the strength of the original stimulus.
He was a German experimental psychologist who demonstrated that mental processes can be measured.
A Canadian neurophysiologist whose research on feature detectors helped demonstrate the rpesence of specialized neurons in the occipital lobe's visual cortex that have the ability to respond to specific features of an image.
He is a Swedish neurophysiologist who collaborated with Hubel. Their joint work expanded the scientific knowledge of sensory processing and perception.
He is renowned for his research on hypnosis and pain control. He theorized that a hypnotized person experiences a special state of dissociation or divided consciousness. As a result, the hypnotized person experiences one stream of mental activity that responds to the hypnotist's suggestions while a second stream of mental activity is also processing information that is unavailable to the consciousness of the hypnotized subject. He named this second, dissociated stream of mental activity the "hidden observer."
He was a world-famous Russian physiologist who devoted three decades and 532 carefully designed experiences to studying and formulating the principles of classical learning.
Conducted pioneering research on taste aversion. He discovered that when rats drank flavored water before becoming nauseated from a drug that produced gastrointestinal distress, they acquired a conditioned taste aversion for the flavored water. Additional studies, in which Garcia paired noise or a shock with the nausea-producing drug, did not produce a taste aversion.
Says that classical conditioning occurs simply because two stimuli are closely associated in time. The conditioned stimulus must predict the unconditioned stimulus. "The animal behaves like a scientist, detecting casual relationships among events and using a range of info about those events to make the relevant inferancse."
Edward L. Thorndike
Conducted the first systematic investigations of animal behavior. His famous law of effect states that responses followed by a satisfying outcome are more likely to be repeated, while responses followed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated.
He insisted that psychologists should focus on observable behavior that could be objectively measured and verified. He also formulated the principles of operant conditioning.
Thorndike and Skinner believed that behavior is a complex chain of stimulus-response connections that is strengthened or "stamped in" by rewarding consequence. He conducted a series of experiments demonstrating that rats formed a cognitive map or mental representation of a maze and found food at the end of the maze. He concluded that learning involves the acquisition and use of knowledge rather than simply conditioned changes in outward behavior.
believed that Behaviorists underestimated animal's cognitive processes and abilities. He suspended bananas just outside the reach of a caged chimpanzee named Sultan. (not through trial and error but insight)
"Bobo Doll" experiments illustrating the role of modeling in human behavior. Observable learning is responsible for most human behavior.
George A. Miller
"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two." he presented convincing evidence that the capacity of short-term memory is limited to seven items (+ or - two) of info.
He conducted pioneering research on forgetting. His famous forgetting curve shows a rapid loss of memories of relatively meaningless info, followed by a very gradual decline of the remaining info.
A cognitive psychologist that did extensive research on the misinformation effect demonstrated that eyewitness testimony is often unreliable and can be altered by simply giving a witness incorrect post-event info.
A renowned linguist who argues that young children possess an innate capacity to learn and produce speech. He notes that children in widely different cultures nonetheless progress through the same stagesof language development at about the same time. He hypothesized that humans learn language because of innate speech-enabling structures called the language acquisition device or LAD.
Founder of the humanistic approach to psychology. He focused on what constituted positive mental health. His hierarchy of needs begins with basic physiological and safety needs and then ascends to belonging and self-esteem. Individuals reach his top level of "self-actualization" by realizing their full potential and achieving harmony and understanding.
His two-factor theory of emotions depends on physical arousal and a cognitive labeling of that arousal. EX. If you cry after breakig up with your boyfriend, you label your emotion as sadness. If you cry at your sister's graduation, you label it as happiness.
His study of stress was proven through a three-stage genral adaptation syndrome; stress begins with an alarm reaction when people confront stressproducing event by mobilizing internal resources such as producing adrenaline, to bring about the fight-or-flight response. If the stressor continues, the body enters a second stage of resistence characterized by heightened physiological arousal and sudden outpouring of hormones. Long-term exposure to the stressor event eventually leads to a third stage of exhaustion that depletes the body's resources and leads to physical disorders, vunerability to illness, and a complete collapse.
his research on human sexuality is very controversial and provides data that is still used as a baseline for modern research.