ANTH 100 - Religion

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25 terms · Religion

Worldviews

Encompassing pictures of reality created by the members of societies

Organic Metaphors

A worldview metaphor that applies the image of the body to social structures and institutions.

Technological Metaphor

A worldview metaphor that employs objects made by human beings as predicates.

Societal Metaphor

A worldview metaphor whose model for the world is the social order.

Religion

A type of worldview that tells us how we should view the world and how we should act. Explains intangible things with faith, not evidence.

Ritual

A repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities that are closely connected to a specific set of ideas that are often encoded in myth.

Rite of passage

A ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another.

Liminality

time between stages. Temporary suspension of ordinary social rules. Ex: bachelorette parties - binge drinking, frisky behaviour.

Communitas

a state of perceived solidarity, equality, and unity among people sharing an experience, often characterized by intense emotion.

Separation

First stage of a rite of passage. Taken from your past stage, becomes liminal stage. (Bachelorette party)

Transition

Second stage of a rite of passage. Process of change (marriage ceremony).

Incorporation

Last stage of rite of passage. Reintroduced into society.

Self

The result of the process of socialization/enculturation for an individual.

Personality

The relative integration of an individual's perceptions, motives, cognitions, and behaviour within a sociocultural matrix.

Subjectivity

"The felt interior experience of the person that includes his or her positions in a field of relational power." (Das and Kleinman 2000)

Orthopraxy

"Correct practice"; the prohibition of deviation from approved forms of ritual behavior.

Shaman

A part-time religious practitioner who is believed to have the power to contact supernatural forces directly on behalf of individuals or groups.

Priest

A religious practitioner skilled in the practice of religious rituals, which he or she carries out for the benefit of the group.

Witchcraft

The performance of evil by human beings believed to possess and innate, nonhuman power to do evil, whether or not it is intentional or self-aware.

Magic

A set of beliefs and practices designed to control the visible or invisible world for specific purposes.

Oracles

Invisible forces to which people address questions and whose responses they believe to be truthful.

Syncretism

The synthesis of old religious practices (or an old way of life) with new religious practices (or a new way of life) introduces from outside, often by force.

Revitalization

A conscious, deliberate, and organized attempt by some members of a society to create a more satisfying culture in a time of crisis.

Nativism

A return to the old ways; a movement whose members expect a messiah or prophet who will bring back a lost golden age of peace, prosperity, and harmony.

Animism

A belief system that suggests that things (animate or inanimate) have spirits or souls.

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