waxy and watertight layer on the external wall of epidermal cells.
one of many openings in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enable gas exchange to occur.
one of a pair of a specialized cells that border a stoma and regulate gas exchange.
conducting system of tissues that transport water and other materials in plants or in animals.
three groups of plants that lack specialized conducting tissues and true roots,stems, and leaves.
plants that have a vascular system.
structure that contains embryo of a plant.
early stage in development of plants and animals.
vascular plants that produce seeds.
reproductive structure that produces pollen and seeds.
soft walled cells transport organic nutrients in this tissue.
hard walled cells transport water and mineral nutrients in this tissue.
part of plant that grows UPWARD.
part of plant that grows DOWNWARD.
zones of actively dividing plant cells, produce plant growth.
hairlike projections that anchor gametophytes to the surfaces to grow.
horizontal underground stems.
most fern sporophytes have a rhizome anchored by roots and leaves called fronds.
formed by clusters of nongreen spore bearing leaves.
seed plants whose seeds DON'T develop in a fruit.
flowering plant, produces seeds that develop fruit.
encloses seeds for angiosperms
seeds of Angiosperm have supply of stored food called endosperm
flowering plants that produce seeds with one seed leaf.
flowering plants that produce seeds w/ 2 seed leaves.
non reproductive part of plant
grasses grown as food for humans and livestock
structure that produces eggs.
structure that produces sperm.
cluster of sporangia on a fern frond.
an immature male gametophyte of a seed plant.
where a female gametophyte develops.
transfer of pollen grains from male reproductive structures of plant to female parts.
grows from a pollen grain to an ovule and enables sperm to pass directly to an egg.
protective outer layer of seeds of flowering plants
structure of seed plant embryo that stores or absorbs food for the developing plant
protect flower from damage while in bud.
pollen producing sac
stalk, called style rises from this.
fusing of 3 haploid cells form a triploid cell that develops into endosperm.
reproduction of plants from stems, roots, and leaves.
growing new plants from seeds or from vegatative parts.
pieces of plant tissue are placed on a sterile medium and used to grow new plants.
forms of protective layer of a plant.
makes up much of the inside of the nonwoody parts of plants.
made up of single layer of flat cells, skin of the plant.
dermal tissue on woody stems and roots, consists of several layers of dead cells.
conducting strands in phloem
ground tissue surrounding vascular tissue
tubelike structure in xylem thats composed of connected cells that conduct water and minerals
slender projections of the cell membrane
covers and protects actively growing root tip.
plant w/ stems that are flexible and usually green
stems of herbaceous plants that contain bundles of xylem and phloem
ground tissue inside ring.
wood in center of a mature stem or tree trunk
lies outside heartwood, contains vessel cells that can conduct water.
stalk that attaches a leaf to stem of a plant
ground tissue, they're packed w/ chloroplasts
process by which plants release water vapor into air through stomata.
part of plant that provides organic compounds for other parts of plants.
part of plant that organic compounds are delivered to.
movement of organic compounds within a plant from a source to sink.
when a plant embryo resumes its growth
plant that lives for several years.
plant that lives one year
plant that lives 2 years
growth that increases plants length/height.
growth that increases width of stems and roots.
located at tips of stems and roots, produces primary growth thru cell division.
meristem that lies within bark and produces cork cells.
meristem, lies under bark and produces vascular tissues.
one new of secondary xylem (wood) forms each year.
elements absorbed mainly in as inorganic ions.
causes cells to get longer, plant hormone.
chemical produced in one part of an organism and transported to another.
inhibition of lateral bud growth on stem of plant by auxin produced in terminal bud.
response in which plant grows either toward or away from stimulus.
response of a plant to the length of days and nights.
period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing