A guilty (prohibited) act. The commission of a prohibited act is one of the two essential elements required for criminal liability, the other element being the intent to commit a crime.
Mental state, or intent. Normally, a wrongful mental state is as necessary as a wrongful act to establish criminal liability. What constitutes such a mental state varies according to the wrongful action. Thus, for murder, the mens rea is the intent to take a life.
The intentional burning of another's building. Some statutes have expanded this to include any real property regardless of ownership and the destruction of property by other means - for example, by explosion.
A situation occurring when a person is tried twice for the same criminal offense; prohibited by the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Unlawful pressure brought to bear on a person, causing the person to perform an act that she or he would not otherwise have performed.
Fraudulent appropriation of funds or property by a person to whom the funds or property has been entrusted.
In criminal law, a defense in which the defendant claims they were induced by a public official - usually an undercover agent or police officer - to commit a crime that he or she would not otherwise have committed.
In criminal procedure, a rule under which any evidence that is obtained in violation of the accused' rights guaranteed by the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, as well as any evidence derived from illegally obtained evidence, will not be admissible in court.
The fraudulent making or altering of writing in a way that changes the legal rights and liabilities of another.
A group of citizens called to decide, after hearing the state's evidence, whether a reasonable basis (probable cause) exists for believing that a crime has been committed and that a trial ought to be held.
A charge by a grand jury that a named person has committed a crime.
Engaging in financial transaction to conceal the identity, source, or destination of illegally gained funds.
The process by which a criminal defendant and the prosecutor in a criminal case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case, subject to court approval; usually involves the defendant's pleading guilty to a lesser offense in return for a lighter sentence.
Reasonable grounds for believe that a person should be arrested or searched.
An order granted by a public authority, such as a judge, that authorizes law enforcement personnel to search particular premises or property.
The giving of testimony that may subject the testifier to criminal prosecution. The Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects against self-incrimination by providing that no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself."
Non violent crime committed by individuals or corporations to obtain a personal or business advantage.