Plant Biology Lab Exam

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1- The Microscope 2- The Cell 3- Mitosis 4- Roots 5- Stems 6- Leaves 7-Meiosis and Alternation of Generations

Prevent Scratches

Why should only lens paper be used to clean microscope lenses?

Regulate Light Flow

What is the function of the iris diaphragm?

Light Intensity decreases

What happens to the light intensity as the magnification is increased?

Field of light decreases

What happens to the amount of field visible when magnification is increased?

cell wall, amlyoplasts

Parts of the potato cell

Cytoplasm, Vacuole, cell wall, chloroplast, Nucleus

Parts of the Elodea Cell

Cyclosis

When chloroplasts appear to be moving within a living cell, what is the cause of their movement?

Throughout Cell

In most living cells, such as those elodea, where is the cytoplasm located?

Occupy 90% of the cell

How extensive are plant cell vacuoles?

amyloplasts stain due to starch content

How are amyloplast distinguished from parenchyma cells in a potato?

Movement of chloroplast

What is cyclosis?

Bag of fluid

What is a vacuole?

Vacuole membrane

What is the thin boundary of the vacuole called?

Against cell wall

Where would you look for the nucleus in an Elodea Cell?

Faint concentric lines

How can you tell a potato amyloplast from a cell?

Amyloplast colorless, Chloroplast color

How would you distinguish an amyloplast from a chloroplast?

Center of Nucleus, near cell wall

Where would you expect to find a nucleolus?

Prophase

-nucleus
-Nucleolus
-Nuclear Envelope
-cytoplasm

Metaphase

-Spindle fibers
-Chromosomes

Anaphase

-centromere

Telophase

-Cell wall
-cell plate
-phramoplast

Root Parts

-Stele
-Cortex
-endodermis
-epidermis

Buttercup Root

-Primary Xylem
-Primary Phloem
-Pericycle
-endodermis

Region of Maturation

With which specific region of roots is this exercise concerned?

Root cells; Epidermal, Pericycle

In which tissues do the following originate?
-Root Hairs
-Lateral Roots

Starch

What evidence of the food-storage function of cortex is present in buttercup (Ranunculus) roots?

Endodermis

Which tissue surrounds and borders the stele of a dicot root?

Vascular tissues; xylem, phloem, pericycle

Which tissues comprise the stele?

Casparian Strip

What term is used to describe the bands of fatty substances that are found on the inner surfaces of endodermal cell walls?

Endodermis, Epidermis, Cortex

As lateral roots develop inside a primary root, through which tissues must they grow to reach the surface?

Pericycle

From which tissue do lateral roots arise?

pITH

Which tissue of stems is not present in dicot roots?

Pericycle

Which tissue is immediately adjacent to the endodermis on the side toward the center?

Starch Granules

What is present in cells of the cortex that gives evidence of its function as a food-storage tissue?

Bonds of Fatty suberin

Of what fatty substance are Casparian strips composed?

Xylem

What water-conducting tissue is present in the center of a dicot root?

Parts of Stems

-Terminal Bud
-Bud Scales
-Axillary Buds
-Internode
-Node
-Bundle Scars
-Girdle
-Lenticels

Bud Scales

What protects the buds of dormant twigs?

Area where leaf petiole detached from twig

What are bundle scars?

Axil, the angle between stem & leaf seperate

Where, specifically, are axillary buds located>

Lenticels

What structures associated with gas exchange are found throughout stem internodes?

Bud scales- stem, Leaf scars- twig

What is the difference between bud scales scars and leaf scars?

Vascular cambium, produces secondary growth

Which tissue separates cortex from pith in an older alfalfa stem? What is the function of this tissue?

Storage

What is the primary function of cortex and pith?

Xylem

Which tissue conducts water and minerals in solution?

Gentian Violet & eosin

Which stains are used to make the tissues of your handmade linden (basswood) slide more readily visible?

Xylem and Bolsam

If you wished to make handmade linden (basswood) slide permanent, which additional substance would you use?

Cork & phelloderm, secondary xylem & phloem

Which two tissues are produced by the corck cambium and which two tissues are produced by the vascular cambium

Phloem

In which tissues of the linden (basswood) stem are fiber cells conspicuous?

Vessels & Tracheids

Of what kinds of cells is an annual ring of xylem composed?

Above axil between petiole & stem

Where are axillary buds located?

Lenticels

What are the small bumps of parenchyma tissue on the surface of the internodes called?

Vascular Tissue

How is a bundle scar formed?

Gas exchange

What is the function of a lenticel?

Basswood

Which of the stems in this exercise has the most complex phloem?

Phelloderm cells

In addition to cork, what tissue is usually produced by the cork cambium?

Scattered

How are vascular bundles arranged in a monocot stem?

Corn

Which of the stems featured in this laboratory exercise is NOT a dicot?

Leaves

-Upper epidermis
-Vascular bundle vein
-Palisade Mesophyll
-Stoma
-Spongy Mesophyll
-Lower Epidermis
-Guard Cells

Leaves

-Vein
-Xylem
-Upper Epidermis
-Palisade Mesophyll
-Lower Epidermis
-Phloem
-Stoma
-Spongy Mesophyll

Leaves

-Mesophyll
-Epidermis
-Hypodermis
-Vascular Bundle
-Stoma
-Endodermis sunken
-Transfussion tissue
-phloem
-xylem
-Resin Canal

compound leave - multiple leaves, simple leaves- single

How does a compound leaf differ from a simple leaf?

Cuticle

What fatty or waxy substance present on the outer walls of leaf epidermal cells is often lost in the preparation of slides?

On vascular bundle at bottom of vein

When you view a cross section of a leaf with the upper epidermis at the top, where is the phloem located in a vein?

Chloroplasts

Which of the larger organelles are most abundant in palisade mesophyll cells?

Mesophyll

Which tissue lies between the epidermis and the endodermis in a pine leaf?

Mesophyll Tissue

Where are the resin canals located in a pine leaf?

Secrete resin through a tubular duct

What is Mesophyll tissue function?

Pores for evapotransporation

What are sunken stomata?

Associated with Arid plants

With which types of plants are sunken stomata associated?

Protects and supports

What is the function of a hypodermis?

Inside of epidermis

Where is a hypodermis located?

Guard Cell

Apart from size and shape, how do guard cells differ from the epidermal cells that surround them?

Small leaf-like appendage

What are stipules?

Cutin

What is the fatty or waxy substance that coats a leaf epidermis called?

Hypodermis

What tissue composed of thick-walled cells is found just beneath the epidermis of pine leaf?

Veins run various directions across a leaf

In prepared slides of lilac leaves, why are some veins visible in cross section while others are visible in longitudinal section?

Mesophyll

Which tissue of pine leaves differs from that of lilac leaves in its not being divided into two distinguishable layers?

Xylem and Phloem

Of which two tissues are leaf veins primarily composed?

Lower Epidermis

Where are stomata generally most abundant in the majority of leaves?

Palisade Layer

Which layer of mesophyll is closest to the upper epidermis of a leaf?

Pine Leaves

In what kind of leaf would you expect to find resin canals?

Guard Cells

The two cells that form and surround a stoma are known as:

Prophase I

n which phase of meiosis does crossing-over occur?

Separate at end of Anaphase II

In which phase of meiosis do the chromatids of the chromosomes separate completely from one other?

Telophase II

In which phase of meiosis does a nuclear envelop become organized around each group of chromatids?

Chromosomes the same length

What are chromosomal homologues (homologous chromosomes)?

Gamenophyte

What name is given to the haploid (n) phase of a sexual life cycle?

Fertilization

The change from a gametophyte to a sporophyte generation occurs as a result of:

Zygote

What is the first cell of a sporophyte generation called?

Two sets

How many sets of chromosomes are present in each cell of a sporophyte generation?

Two Divisions

How many divisions of the nucleus or cell occur during meiosis?

Crossing Over

What term is applied to the exchange of parts that may occur between pairs of chromosomes in the early stages of meiosis?

Four Cells

3) When one cell undergoes meiosis, how many cells are there at the completion of the process?

Chromosomes line up in pairs along the center

4) What happens during metaphase I of meiosis?

Prophase I during Synchronous process

5) At which stage of meiosis do the two strands (chromatids) of each chromosome separate and migrate to opposite poles?

point on chromosome attached to a spindle fiber

6) What is a centromere?

Gametophyte

7) A spore is normally the first cell of which generation?

Male & female gamete

8) Fertilization occurs when which cells unite?

Full double-set

9) How many sets of chromosomes does a sporocyte have?

Sporophyte

10) To which generation does a zygote belong?

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