1- The Microscope
2- The Cell
7-Meiosis and Alternation of Generations
Why should only lens paper be used to clean microscope lenses?
Regulate Light Flow
What is the function of the iris diaphragm?
Light Intensity decreases
What happens to the light intensity as the magnification is increased?
Field of light decreases
What happens to the amount of field visible when magnification is increased?
cell wall, amlyoplasts
Parts of the potato cell
Cytoplasm, Vacuole, cell wall, chloroplast, Nucleus
Parts of the Elodea Cell
When chloroplasts appear to be moving within a living cell, what is the cause of their movement?
In most living cells, such as those elodea, where is the cytoplasm located?
Occupy 90% of the cell
How extensive are plant cell vacuoles?
amyloplasts stain due to starch content
How are amyloplast distinguished from parenchyma cells in a potato?
Movement of chloroplast
What is cyclosis?
Bag of fluid
What is a vacuole?
What is the thin boundary of the vacuole called?
Against cell wall
Where would you look for the nucleus in an Elodea Cell?
Faint concentric lines
How can you tell a potato amyloplast from a cell?
Amyloplast colorless, Chloroplast color
How would you distinguish an amyloplast from a chloroplast?
Center of Nucleus, near cell wall
Where would you expect to find a nucleolus?
Region of Maturation
With which specific region of roots is this exercise concerned?
Root cells; Epidermal, Pericycle
In which tissues do the following originate?
What evidence of the food-storage function of cortex is present in buttercup (Ranunculus) roots?
Which tissue surrounds and borders the stele of a dicot root?
Vascular tissues; xylem, phloem, pericycle
Which tissues comprise the stele?
What term is used to describe the bands of fatty substances that are found on the inner surfaces of endodermal cell walls?
Endodermis, Epidermis, Cortex
As lateral roots develop inside a primary root, through which tissues must they grow to reach the surface?
From which tissue do lateral roots arise?
Which tissue of stems is not present in dicot roots?
Which tissue is immediately adjacent to the endodermis on the side toward the center?
What is present in cells of the cortex that gives evidence of its function as a food-storage tissue?
Bonds of Fatty suberin
Of what fatty substance are Casparian strips composed?
What water-conducting tissue is present in the center of a dicot root?
Parts of Stems
What protects the buds of dormant twigs?
Area where leaf petiole detached from twig
What are bundle scars?
Axil, the angle between stem & leaf seperate
Where, specifically, are axillary buds located>
What structures associated with gas exchange are found throughout stem internodes?
Bud scales- stem, Leaf scars- twig
What is the difference between bud scales scars and leaf scars?
Vascular cambium, produces secondary growth
Which tissue separates cortex from pith in an older alfalfa stem? What is the function of this tissue?
What is the primary function of cortex and pith?
Which tissue conducts water and minerals in solution?
Gentian Violet & eosin
Which stains are used to make the tissues of your handmade linden (basswood) slide more readily visible?
Xylem and Bolsam
If you wished to make handmade linden (basswood) slide permanent, which additional substance would you use?
Cork & phelloderm, secondary xylem & phloem
Which two tissues are produced by the corck cambium and which two tissues are produced by the vascular cambium
In which tissues of the linden (basswood) stem are fiber cells conspicuous?
Vessels & Tracheids
Of what kinds of cells is an annual ring of xylem composed?
Above axil between petiole & stem
Where are axillary buds located?
What are the small bumps of parenchyma tissue on the surface of the internodes called?
How is a bundle scar formed?
What is the function of a lenticel?
Which of the stems in this exercise has the most complex phloem?
In addition to cork, what tissue is usually produced by the cork cambium?
How are vascular bundles arranged in a monocot stem?
Which of the stems featured in this laboratory exercise is NOT a dicot?
-Vascular bundle vein
compound leave - multiple leaves, simple leaves- single
How does a compound leaf differ from a simple leaf?
What fatty or waxy substance present on the outer walls of leaf epidermal cells is often lost in the preparation of slides?
On vascular bundle at bottom of vein
When you view a cross section of a leaf with the upper epidermis at the top, where is the phloem located in a vein?
Which of the larger organelles are most abundant in palisade mesophyll cells?
Which tissue lies between the epidermis and the endodermis in a pine leaf?
Where are the resin canals located in a pine leaf?
Secrete resin through a tubular duct
What is Mesophyll tissue function?
Pores for evapotransporation
What are sunken stomata?
Associated with Arid plants
With which types of plants are sunken stomata associated?
Protects and supports
What is the function of a hypodermis?
Inside of epidermis
Where is a hypodermis located?
Apart from size and shape, how do guard cells differ from the epidermal cells that surround them?
Small leaf-like appendage
What are stipules?
What is the fatty or waxy substance that coats a leaf epidermis called?
What tissue composed of thick-walled cells is found just beneath the epidermis of pine leaf?
Veins run various directions across a leaf
In prepared slides of lilac leaves, why are some veins visible in cross section while others are visible in longitudinal section?
Which tissue of pine leaves differs from that of lilac leaves in its not being divided into two distinguishable layers?
Xylem and Phloem
Of which two tissues are leaf veins primarily composed?
Where are stomata generally most abundant in the majority of leaves?
Which layer of mesophyll is closest to the upper epidermis of a leaf?
In what kind of leaf would you expect to find resin canals?
The two cells that form and surround a stoma are known as:
n which phase of meiosis does crossing-over occur?
Separate at end of Anaphase II
In which phase of meiosis do the chromatids of the chromosomes separate completely from one other?
In which phase of meiosis does a nuclear envelop become organized around each group of chromatids?
Chromosomes the same length
What are chromosomal homologues (homologous chromosomes)?
What name is given to the haploid (n) phase of a sexual life cycle?
The change from a gametophyte to a sporophyte generation occurs as a result of:
What is the first cell of a sporophyte generation called?
How many sets of chromosomes are present in each cell of a sporophyte generation?
How many divisions of the nucleus or cell occur during meiosis?
What term is applied to the exchange of parts that may occur between pairs of chromosomes in the early stages of meiosis?
3) When one cell undergoes meiosis, how many cells are there at the completion of the process?
Chromosomes line up in pairs along the center
4) What happens during metaphase I of meiosis?
Prophase I during Synchronous process
5) At which stage of meiosis do the two strands (chromatids) of each chromosome separate and migrate to opposite poles?
point on chromosome attached to a spindle fiber
6) What is a centromere?
7) A spore is normally the first cell of which generation?
Male & female gamete
8) Fertilization occurs when which cells unite?
9) How many sets of chromosomes does a sporocyte have?
10) To which generation does a zygote belong?