Medical Office: Human Diseases Final Exam Study Guide Review

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an example of a congenital disease

cerebral palsy

what two types of cancers carry the highest risk among families

colon/breast

factors which delay wound healing are

age, size, circulation

the purpose of antihypertensives

regulate BP

treatment for viral infections include

rest and fluids

treatment for bacterial infections

antibiotics

preventative measures for a UTI include

fluids, frequent urination

someone with diabetes insipidous might urinate

2-10 gallons of urine per day

the thyroids job is to regulate

metabolism

sebaceous glands produce

sebum

styes are caused by

staph

external and inner ear are separated by the

tympanic membrane

treatment for otitis media includes

antibiotics

herpes varicella is another name for

chicken pox

the medical term for shingles is

herpes zoster

holistic medicine

concept considering the whole person rather than just physical being. spiritual, cognitive, social, physical,emotional being

acute disease

short term example common cold

congenital

present at birth even if not apparent

genetic mutation

something wrong with genes

congenital

condition existing in infant because mother
example radiation

thrombocytes

clotting cells

leukocytes

white blood cells

anticoagulents

substance that prevents the clotting of blood

kyphosis

curvature of thoracic spine (hunchback)

lordosis

exaggerated anterior or inward curve of lumbar spine

scoliosis

lateral curvature of spine

colon

is the large intestine

reed sternberg cells

cell confirms the diagnosis of hodgkin's lymphoma

islets of langerhans

specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin

melena

black tar like stool

tinea

another name for ringworm

wheal

smooth slightly elevated swollen area that's redder or paler than surrounding skin. accompanied with itching

bulla

large vesicle

vesicle

circumscribed elavation of skin containing fluid

papule

small solid raised lesion

pustule

small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus

macule

flat discolored lesion

cyst

a closed sack or punch containing fluid or semisolid material

pediculosis

infestion of lice

antihypertensives

if blood pressure is extremely high this is used

neoplasm

tumor; increase in cell number, leading to an increase in tissue size

pratt sign

squeeze on calf if there's pain then it's thrombphlebitis

homan sign

bend toes back if there's pain then there's thrombphlebitis

opthalmascope

instrument to examine the interior of the eye

snellen chart

test to measure eye

signs of inflammation

heat, redness, pain, edema, swelling, loss of function

highest cancer risks among families

colon/breast

most definitive test to diagnose a tumor

biopsy

factors which delay healing

age, location, steroids, size of wound, nutrition, circulation, organism virulence

another name for asthma

bronchial asthma

symptoms of anaphylaxis

itching, swelling, and uticaria(rash of round)

blood forming organs

lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver

urine culture determines this

is a test to find and identify germs (usually bacteria) that may be causing a UTI

tension

stress, strain & tension on the facial, neck and scalp muscles

cluster

caused by stress, emotional trauma or unknown reasons

migrane

severe headache, with nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances experiances aura

3 types of headaches

tension, cluster, migrane

environmental causes of congenital defects

what the mother does to baby
drugs, alcohol, smoking

how is intellectual disability diagnosed

observation and IQ test

example of tics

suddenly rapid muscle movement or vocalization
ex: eye blinking

largest mental health disorder in US

anxiety

test used to determine mental health issue

battery
psychological testing

asthma

cause: allergens in environment such as pollen, dust,smoke
signs: shortness of breath, wheezing, anxiety cough
prevention: avoid allergens, medications, deep breathing
treatment: no cure

cardiovascular disease

cause: heredity, diet, age, obesity, smoking, or even stress
signs: pain, shortness of breath, pain, numbness, weakness
treatment: anti-hypertensive, lifestyle changes, low salt diet, stress reducing exercise
prevention: don't smoke, and exercise

bacterial infection

cause: staph, clostridium, haemophilus, e.coli, strep
signs: coughing, fever, headache, difficulty breathing, sore throat
treatment: it depends on the causative agents along with relief of symptoms
prevention: some can be prevented by immunizations

anemia

cause: anything that lows #'s of RBC, acute/chronic bleeding
signs: pallor,fatigue,headache,shortness of breath, irritability,syncope(fainting),tachycardia(abnormal heartbeat)
treatment: anemia varies,sickle cell aren't curable
prevention:eating healthy,notall mightbe preventable& treatable

cirrhosis

cause:chronic alcoholism, more common in males than female
signs:loss appetite,nausea,indigestion,weakness,weightloss
treatment:replacement of normal liver cells with non-functioning scar tissue-hobnail liver
prevention:not all preventable, avoid alcohol, avoid exposure all types of hepatitis

UTI

cause:more common in females,sexual intercourse,pregnant
signs:hematuria, pyuria, oliguria(scanty)
treatment:bacterial sensitivity test
prevention:antibiotics

gigantism

cause:begign pituitary tumors
signs:oily and tough skin,slurr speech,large hands feet and forehead, abnormal facial features
treatment:surgery radiation,drug therapy
prevention:no prevention,prevent injury or trauma to the gland

graves

most common autoimmune condition
cause: diarrhea
signs:skin moist, extreme thirst, exophthalmos(abnormal eyes
treatment:medication,surgery,radiation
prevention:no general prevention but those smokes likely

diabetes insipidous (DI)

cause:decrease in the release of vasopressin or ADH
signs:urine,colorless,dizziness, constipation
treatment:administration of vasopressin
prevention:many not preventable

conjunctivis

cause:viruses,bacteria,allergies (this is pink eye)
signs:excessive tearing,itching,burning,and pain
treatment:analgesics,decongestants,antibiotics
prevention:avoid bottle feeding and smoking environment

psoriasis

common chronic disease skin
cause:unkown
signs:red,raised lesions with distinct borders&silvery scales
treatment:medication to control itching,streroids,ultraviolet light
prevention:no way to prevent it

ringworm (tinea)

cause:variety of fungi
signs:itching, cracking, and weeping skin
treatment:keep affected area clean & dry,use antifungeal fungi
prevention:keep skin healthy,clean,dry,avoid tight fitting clothes and avoid public showers and bathtubs

herpes simplex

largest virus family
signs:inflimmation on skin,clustersor fluid filled vesicles
treatment:no cure
prevention:healthy lifestyle, avoid skin contact,vaccination

cerebral palsy(CP)

cause:low oxygen during birth
signs:infants difficult sucking or swallowing,seizure,metal
treatment:no cure
prevention:no preventive measures

tetrology of fallot

cause:unkown
signs:cyanosis,clubbing fingers&toes,retardiation
treatment:early diagnosis&surgical corrections
prevention:controlling risk factors

cystic fibrosis

cause:hereditary recessive disorder affecting young children
signs:viscous(thick)secretions,coughing,lung constantly liquid
treatment:antibiotics,postural drainage, chest clapping
prevention:no preventions

ADHD

cause:unknown
signs:inability to concentrate,hyperactivity,impulsiveness
treatment:amphetamines(speeds)
prevention:unknown

cataract

clouding of lens
cause:change in metabolism and nutrition in lens,aging
signs:decreased visual acuity
treatment:lens replacement surgery
prevention:unknown

impetigo

staph or strep bacteria which causes vesicles to erupt on mouth and hands
cause:strep&staph bacteria
signs:appearance of vesicles and rustules that rupture
treatment:washing & drying affecting area, applying antibiotics
prevention:good personal hygiene, frequent handwashing

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