The word art encompasses many meanings, including process. Which of the following is considered an artistic process?
2. human capacity
3. a tapestry
5. a building
Marc Chagall's self-portrait "I and the Village" can best be described as a depiction of _____.
An anti-commercial movement begun in the 1960's in which works of art are conceived and executed in the mind of the artist is known as _____.
All of the things I know, but of which I am not at the moment thinking - 1:36PM; June 15, 1969. This is an example of a _____.
Henri Matisse and Romare Bearden both utilize ______ to create order and harmony in their versions of the Piano Lesson.
color and shape repetition
In his famous 1907 photograph, Alfred Stieglitz captures the juxtaposition of the upper and lower classes on board the Kaiser Wilhelm II ship. This photograph is titled _____.
African-American artist Faith Ringgold records the story of her life and dreams on a Harlem rooftop. Her painted memories are depicted withing the framework of a(n) _____.
In Nighthawks, Edward Hopper's desolate scene of late night diners in a city cafe, the scene seems to be set in the period of the _____.
Picasso protested the horror and brutality of the Spanish civil war in his 1937 masterpiece painting known as _____.
Examining a work of art in its historical, social, and political _____ enables you to better understand it.
In Betye Saar's The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, the artist is protesting the use of Aunt Jemima as a(n) _____.
Images painted directly on a wall or intended to cover a wall completely, such as Jose Clemente Orozco's Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-American, are known as _____.
Judy Chicago's triangular installation called The Dinner Party was constructed to honor and immortalize _____.
history's notable women
The use of space and atmosphere in Max Beckmann's The Dream could be best described as _____.
claustrophobic and compressed
In Laurie Simmons' photograph Red Library #2, the perfect room and robot-like woman are meant to symbolize _____.
the dangers of too much order
The Roman Emperor Trajan's tomb is a(n) _____ designed to glorify his military victories; centuries later the French adapted this design for _____.
column; Emperor Napoleon
What civilization was obsessed with its idea of beauty, and developed mathematical formulas for sculpting the human body so it would achieve ideal perfection?
The 16th century artist Leonardo da Vinci produced what is perhaps the most famous painting in the history of Western art. This painting is known as _____.
Glass sculptor Dale Chihuly's Fioridi Como, located in Las Vegas' Bellagio Hotel, is a 70 foot long ceiling piece reminiscent of the shapes and brilliant colors of Venice's renowned _____ glass.
Mexican artist Frida Kahlo is best known for her extremely realistic and often anguished _____.
In Four Marilyns, Pop artist Andy Warhol participated in the cultural _____ of the film star and icon Marilyn Monroe.
Located in Istanbul, Turkey, the _____ was built as a Christian church in 532-537 CE , but was converted to an Islamic mosque in 1453 and now serves as a museum. It's _____ is especially wondrous, appearing to float on light streaming through its row of windows.
Hagia Sophia; dome
In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.
From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?
A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light into different colors is called a ____.
The message or meaning in Helen Frankenthaler's amorphous abstract Bay Side seems to lie primarily in its ____.
Impressionist painter Claude Monet was trying to capture the effect of ____ in his Haystack at Sunset Near Giverny.
David Gilhooly's Bowl of Chocolate Moose seems gooey and edible. It is a visual pun that employs the use of a technique known as ____.
When an artist places one object in front of another to create the illusion of depth, it is called ____.
____, in which parallel lines converge at one or more vantage points on the horizon to create the illusion of depth, was highly refined by ____ artists.
Linear perspective; Renaissance
American sculptor Alexander Calder is known for his mobiles, which are excellent examples of ____.
One of the best ways to create the illusion of motion on a two-dimensional surface is by ____.
When you look at a(n) ____ painting, your eyes are manipulated to see rippling movement and afterimages.
What inspired Picasso to create his groundbreaking painting known as Les Demoiselles d'Avignon?
African and Iberian art
The edges formed by the flesh and muscle in Edward Weston's Knees are best described as ____.
Mark Tansey's Landscape depicts three-dimensional massive shapes on a two-dimensional surface, creating what is known as ____.
Which of the following shapes can be considered a cultural icon?
1. all of these choices
2. Chinese yin yang
3. Jewish Star of David
4. Christian cross
5. Apple logo
all of these choices
In Martina Lopez' Heirs Come to Pass, 3, the primary technique used to create the illusion of depth is ____.
____ creates the illusion of roundness or three dimensionality through the use of light and shadow on a two-dimensional surface.
The process of organizing the visual elements to achieve a desired aesthetic in a work of art is known as ___________.
Unlike pure, bilateral symmetry, _________ provides variety within an overall unified composition.
Leonardo da Vinci's Proportion of the Human Figure can best be considered an example of __________.
________ is often a major design element in art forms such as ceramics, basketry, jewelry, and stained glass.
In Family of Saltimbanques, Picasso places visual emphasis on the seated woman in the painting through ________.
Content can be a powerful focal point in a work of art. In Edgar Degas' Woman Leaning near a Vase of Flowers, the focal point of the composition is the ____.
A good architectural example of rhythmic progression can be found in the ____ in the ceiling of the mosque at Córdoba, Spain.
Count de Montizon's photograph The Hippopotamus at the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park is trying to communicate the ____ of the exotic animal by comparing it to the nine onlookers behind it.
According to Polykleitos, the head of an ideal human body should be ____ of the total height of the body.
The ancient Greeks developed the concept of the ____ because they believed that it created ideal proportions in architecture.
If you superimpose a diagram of a ____ over a photograph of the East façade of the Parthenon, it is a perfect fit.
root five rectangle
Whether conscious of the mathematical basis of ancient Greek architectural designs or not, Michelangelo utilized their components when he painted the ____.
Sistine Chapel ceiling
In Welcome the World Famous Brand, the Luo Brothers portray an overcrowded composition which emphasizes ____.
the convergence of consumerism and globalism
In Kay Sage's I Saw Three Cities, most of the visual weight in the composition occurs in the lower half but is balanced in the upper reaches of the sky by ____.
a flowing column of drapery
Variations such as the use of complementary colors and the hazy double of the clear, detailed face of the dog contribute to make William Wegman's Ethiopia an example of ____.
In Wu Jide's River Dwellers, patches of white and well placed touches of color are responsible for the overall ____in an asymmetrical and essentially monochromatic composition.
We can discern the proper size of which of the following objects in Magritte's Personal Values?
1. none of these choices
none of these choices
Which of the following statements about the patriarchal figure in Viola Frey's Family Portrait does not indicate his influential status within the family?
Toys can be seen in the composition.
Although there is much variety amongst the characters in Archibald Motley Jr.'s Saturday Night, the overall composition is unified by ____.
a glowing red color field
The compositional unity in Thomas Hart Benton's Palisades derives primarily from ____.
curvilinear shapes and lines
When artists focus on the unity of ideas and meaning in their work rather than the visual and compositional elements, they are pursuing ____.
Unlike two-dimensional compositions, three-dimensional objects such as sculptures often have ____.
The classical Greek sculptor Polykleitos was the first known artist to apply the principle of ___________ in order to achieve overall naturalistic balance in the human body's stance.
Pictorial balance can be found in which of the following?
Leonardo da Vinci's Proportion of the Human Figure
_________ refers to a distinctive handling of elements and media associated with the work of an individual artist, a school or movment, or a specific culture or period.
Oskar Kokoschka's frenzied brushstrokes in The Tempest are thought to mirror his own _______.
Donna Rosenthal's male and female figures in He Said...She Said are implied by a suit and party dress made from ______.
Pages of discarded books and newspapers
Compositions such as Barbara Hepworth's Two Figures are termed ______ because they make no reference at all to nature or reality.
In Brancusi's sculpture The Kiss, the two figures are reduced to a simple block form, much like the ___________ of Pablo Picasso and George Braque.
Judy Pfaff's nonobjective painting Voodoo leads viewers to try to find subject matter in the work based on its ________.
The form of an artwork includes all of the elements that make up the composition except ____.
The main narrative or subject matter of Barbara Kruger's Untitled: We Don't Need Another Hero is _________.
Jacques Louis-David said "To give a body and a perfect form to your thought, this alone is what it is to be an artist." Based on his statement, David was most likely a(n) _____.
_________ is the study of the themes and symbols in the visual arts: the figures and images that lend works their underlying meanings.
The underlying symbolism in an artist's depiction of an elderly man stooped over amongst leafless, snow-covered trees in the depths of winter is most likely which of the following?
The man is approaching death
Branzino's complex allegory Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time offers up such an iconographic puzzle that there is little doubt that he intended to leave the viewer with a sense of ___________.
Willie Bester's collage Semekazi (Migrant Miseries) was intended to symbolize the ____.
oppression of South African apartheid
Jacques Louis-David was first the court painter to King Louis XVI, but by a twist of fate ended up as painter to ____.
One of the best ways to illustrate stylistic differences between works of art is to choose several works that have a ____.
In Robert Mapplethorpe's photography, such as Ken Moody and Robert Sherman, he drew the world's attention to what it was like to ____.
be gay and living in America
The setting of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's The Two Girlfriends takes place in ____.
Context has a profound influence on style. Artworks are very much a product of ____.
their culture at a moment in time
____ refers to the portrayal of people and things as they actually are, with no idealization or distortion.
____ is both a very realistic portrait of rural life in America and an icon of American art due to its many commercial reproductions on cereal boxes, greeting cards, posters, and the like.
Grant Wood's American Gothic
The couple in Lichtenstein's Forget It, Forget Me! are not very realistic but they are clearly recognizable. The painting is therefore a good example of ____.
The artist Jacques Lipchitz said "Copy nature and you infringe on the work of our Lord. Interpret nature and you are an artist." Based on this comment, Lipchitz was probably not a(n) ____ artist.
In expressionistic art, the artist intentionally distorts colors and forms in the composition in order to achieve a(n) ____.
heightened emotional impact
To achieve the subtle tonal contrasts in his Portrait of a Woman, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux created a hazy atmosphere through the use of ____.
soft chalk on coarse paper
Edgar Degas was one of the masters of pastel drawing in 19th-century France. In ____, Degas depicted one of his favorite subjects.
Woman at Her Toilette
Jaune Quick-to-See Smith's The Environment: Be a Shepherd is reminiscent of a ____ due to its simple forms and sketchy manner.
Many of the artist Chuck Close's unidealized portraits, such as Self Portrait/Conte Crayon, are based on a ____, which produces blurry photographic likenesses.
grid transfer method
After meeting Ms. Mary Lou Furcron, African American artist Beverly Buchanan's life and art have focused on ____, as seen in Henriette's Yard.
southern shack dwellers
The oldest known type of ink is India or China ink, made from a solution of ____.
carbon black and water
Pen and ink are used to create drawings, such as Jean Dubuffet's Garden, that are essentially ____.
As in Giovanni Battista Tiepolo's Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, wash provides a ____ absent in pen-and-ink drawings.
____ artists are masters of the brush-and-ink medium. They have used it for centuries for all types of ____.
With a drawing, the quality of line and the nature of shading are very much affected by the ____ of the support.
The medium of brush and wash is more versatile than brush and ink, as seen in Leonardo da Vinci's Study of Drapery. It is so realistic that it is almost ____.
In its original meaning, a ____ was a full-scale preliminary drawing executed on paper for projects such as frescoes, stained glass, oil paintings, or tapestries.
Which of the following drawing materials cannot be smudged or rubbed for a hazy effect?
Dr. Seuss, famous for his children's books, worked for a New York tabloid newspaper as chief editorial cartoonist during ____.
World War II
Honoré Daumier's pen and ink drawing, The Three Lawyers, is a caricatured illustration of ____.
pompous, superficial lawyers
Rembrandt copied ____ but added some additional features to his own sketched version.
Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper
Michelangelo's Studies for the Libyan Sybil is a good example of a drawing that was meant to be used ____.
as a preparatory study for another project
The unforgiving medium of ____ was widely used for drawing from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s, when it was largely replaced by the lead pencil.
In silverpoint drawings, the drawing surface must be coated with a ground of ____.
bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment
The effects of ____ when each is drawn against a paper surface are very similar.
charcoal, chalk, and pastel
Claudio Bravo's Package is an excellently executed trompe l'oeil drawing that presents the illusion of a package wrapped in ____.
crumpled brown paper and string
The transition to oil paint in the 14th and 15th centuries was gradual. For many years, it was only used for ____ in order to give the paintings a high sheen.
Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein's portrait of George Washington is an oil-on-canvas image that most resembles a(n) ____.
Contemporary artist Ed Paschke's Anesthesio composition has been "defaced" by ____, thus obscuring Lincoln's portrait.
abstract patches of neon-like color
Helen Oji's Mount St. Helen's is an opaque impasto composition in the shape of a ____.
In Roger Shimomura's Untitled painting, he has blended traditional Japanese imagery with American cartoon characters and includes a self-portrait in which he is depicted as ____.
the Statue of Liberty
Contemporary watercolor is referred to as ____, made up of pigments and a vehicle of ____.
aquarelle; gum arabic
____ was the principal painting medium during the Byzantine and Romanesque eras of Christian art.
The fluidity and portability of watercolor has often lent itself to____.
rapid sketches and preparatory studies
Master graffiti artists almost always add "tags" to their artworks, which are ____.
The Synthetic Cubists were the first to create papiers collés, or collages, in the early 20th century. The two major figures of this movement were ____.
Picasso and Braque
Ralph Going's Rock Ola is a contradiction of what we normally consider when we think of a watercolor on paper because the work is considered to be ____.
Gilbert Stuart's 18th-century traditional portrait of George Washington achieves a realistic likeness largely through ____.
In Giotto's 14th-century painting Lamentation, joints can clearly be seen that break the blue sky into numerous sections. This occurred because of the ____.
limitations of fresco
The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tinted their sculptures with ____ to give them a lifelike appearance.
While painting the Egypto-Roman Mummy Portrait of a Man, the artist found it necessary to keep the _____ at a constant temperature.
The traditional composition of tempera, rarely used today, consisted of ____.
egg, pigment, and water
In both tempera and oil painting, the surface of the wood or canvas is covered with a ground of powdered chalk or plaster and animal glue known as ____.
Fifteenth-century artist Gentile da Fabriano applied thinly hammered sheets of gold to his Adoration of the Magi tempera panel using a technique known as ____.
____ is the only printmaking process in which prints can be rendered in paint as well as ink.
Etching is a very versatile medium. In Henri Matisse's Loulou in a Flowered Hat, he used ____ to represent the essential features of a woman.
only a few uniformly etched lines
The popularity of relief printing declined with the introduction of the ____ process, which did not appear until the 15th century.
In works such as her Untitled mixed-media print of Chinese girls, Hung Liu's purpose is to ____.
highlight the degradation of previous generations of Chinese women
Which of the following types of printmaking is not an essentially linear media?
In the 17th century, a Dutchman developed a technique for mezzotint, from the Italian for ____, in which the metal plate is worked over with a multi-toothed tool called a ____.
In The Painter and His Model, Picasso was able to approximate the effects of mezzotint with a much simpler technique known as ____.
Aquatint is frequently used along with line etching to mimic the effects produced by ____.
____ is a type of etching that can be used to produce the effects of crayon or pencil drawings.
The oldest form of printmaking is ____, and most likely the first people to use it were the ancient ____.
The 20th-century American abstract artist Josef Albers created Solo V, an inkless intaglio technique known as ____.
Lithography, invented in the beginning of the 19th century by a German playwright, is a planographic, or ____, printing process in which a ____ is used.
surface; stone slab
Chinese artist Wang Guangyi's Great Criticism: Coca-Cola is a ____ that resembles a commercially produced propaganda poster.
Serigraphy, or silkscreen, was first developed for use as a(n) ____ medium, a fitting medium because Pop artist ____ used it to create Four Multi-colored Marilyns.
commercial; Andy Warhol
A monotype differs from all other printmaking techniques because ____.
it only yields a single, unique image
Zhao Xiaomo's Family by the Lotus Pond is a ____. The areas that were not meant to be printed were carved out ____ the surface of the wood.
Woodcuts make use of the flat surface of wooden boards, but wood engravings use the end sections of the boards, yielding a ____ surface.
In Paul Landacre's Growing Corn, we see a good example of the ____ that can be obtained from the skillful use of wood engraving.
precise lines and tonal gradations
In the ____ process, the artist creates clean-cut lines on a plate of copper, zinc, or steel by forcing a sharp burin across the surface with the heel of the hand.
In creating his Christ Crucified between Two Thieves, Rembrandt used a drypoint needle in order to create ____.
soft, velvety lines
Etching is an intaglio process in which the matrix is covered with a waxy substance and the design is drawn into this substance. The completed matrix drawing is then put into a(n) ____.
acid bath that etches the exposed areas of the matrix
The advent of the camera replaced the age-old need of art to imitate nature as closely as possible, and this change, in turn, led to the development of 20th century artistic ____.
The Artist's Studio, taken in 1837, was the first photograph of its kind and was produced on silver-plated copper by ____.
William Henry Fox Talbot's first "photogenic drawings" were eerie, delicate photographs of ____, produced from a ____.
After the daguerreotype, the next major advance in the history of photography was the development of the ____ process, an example of which is Young Lady with an Umbrella.
By the 1850s, photographic portrait studios became quite popular and began to serve the needs of ____.
a growing middle class
Alexander Gardner's Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg is a graphic photo taken during the ____, probably from a camera in a wagon known as a ____.
United States Civil War; Whatsit
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother is a touching photograph taken during the period of ____.
the Great Depression
Margaret Bourke-White wrote, "Using the camera was almost a relief; it interposed a slight barrier between myself and the white horror in front of me..." Here, Bourke-White is describing ____.
Buchenwald during the Holocaust
Edward Steichen's ____, taken in 1906, is one of the foremost early examples of the photograph as a work of art
The Flatiron Building-Evening
Which of the following photographers is not known also for his or her work in other artistic media?
1. David Hockney
2. William Wegman
3. Sandy Skoglund
4. James VanDerZee
5. Cindy Sherman
A flash or whirl of abruptly changing newspaper headlines meant to indicate the progression of time and events in a film is known as a ____.
Which classic early color film depicted real life in black and white and imaginary life in expressionistic color?
The Wizard of Oz
Dara Birnbaum's multimedia installation PM Magazine appropriated images from the network show of the same title in an effort to focus on ____.
the exploitation of women
Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel's 1928 surrealistic film Un Chien Andalou was intended by the creators to ____.
evoke instinctive reactions of repulsion and attraction
Robert Lazzarini's computer altered study for Payphone is intended to ____.
compel the viewer to take a new look at the familiar
In both the camera and the ____, light enters a narrow opening and is projected onto a photosensitive surface.
When a camera shutter opens for a few thousandths of a second over and over in quick succession, ____ shots are being taken.
A(n) ____ magnifies faraway objects and collapses the spaces between ordinarily distant objects.
With a Polaroid camera, the photograph appears before your eyes. This is an example of ____ film.
The first photographic process to leave a permanent image was invented in 1826 and known as ____.
Due to its ____, clay is frequently used to make three-dimensional preparatory sketches for other sculptures.
In his Apollo and Daphne, the Italian Baroque sculptor Bernini captured the softness of flesh and the textures of hair, leaves, and bark, thereby showing us the potential of ____ as a sculptural material.
In recent years, artists have produced ____ sculptures by welding, riveting, and soldering.
Referring to sculptures such as ____, art critic Robert Hughes said such works were "everything that statues had not been: not monolithic, but open, not cast or carved, but assembled from flat planes."
Picasso's Mandolin and Clarinet
Claes Oldenburg's Soft Toilet elevates an everyday object to a work of art and forces us to rethink its function in society. This is an example of ____.
Made from the seat and handlebars of an old bicycle, ____ is probably the best known assemblage of all time.
Picasso's Bull Head
According to Marcel Duchamp, the function of a readymade was to ____.
prompt the viewer to think and think again
The Simon Rodia Towers in Watts, coated with glass, tile, shells, and dishes, took 33 years to erect. It an example of a(n) ____.
mixed media assemblage
The American sculptor ____ was one of the early
pioneers of the ____, the first form of art that made motion a basic element.
Which of the following is not an additive sculptural process?
Edgar Degas' The Little Dancer was exhibited as a wax model in 1881 and later produced in ____.
Concerning his Cluster of Four Cubes, George Rickey wrote, "The cubes glide, nearly brushing one another in an intricate and graceful dance that belies their apparent bulk." This is an example of a ____.
The painful realism of Kiki Smith's figures, complete with body parts and bodily fluids, was likely influenced by her career as a(n) ____.
emergency medical technician
____ is very likely the most demanding type of sculpture because the artist must have a clear concept of the final product from the very beginning of the process.
All but one of the following materials can be used for casting. Which one cannot?
In the lost wax process, molten metal is poured into a fire-resistant mold known as a(n) ____.
Sherry Levine's Fountains after Duchamp pays homage to Marcel Duchamp's original Dada "readymade" and is a classic example of ____.
In sculptural works such as Three Figures and Four Benches, George Segal produces plaster replicas of people who seem very ____.
Louise Nevelson said, "I began using found objects. I had all this wood lying around and I began to move it around, I began to compose." Nevelson's compositions are considered ____.
Site-specific works are distinguished from other artworks in that they are produced ____.
in or for one location
Cai Guo Qiang's classic example of ephemeral art, Transient Rainbow, came and went in about ____ in June of 2002.
Daniel Libeskind's zigzag design for his extension of the Berlin Museum was derived mathematically from plotting the addresses of ____.
Jewish artists killed in the Holocaust
Michelangelo's David was originally installed as a public work of art for the ____ in Florence.
Piazza della Signoria
One of the most beloved public sculptures in America is Emma Stebbins' Angel of the Waters, located ____.
in New York's Central Park
A ____, located at the entrance to Barcelona's Parc Guell, has become a favorite symbol of the city.
mosaic serpent by Gaudi
Antoni Gaudi was known for his ____ that helped define the Modernista style in Catalonia, Spain.
playful, organic forms
Located in Chicago's Millennium Park, Anish Kapoor's ____ is nicknamed ____ because of its elliptical shape.
Cloud Gate; the bean
The Cow Parades, turning up in every style and theme imaginable in many cities worldwide, are considered ____.
Probably the most ubiquitous type of monument depicts a man on horseback, known as a(n) ____ statue.
The Oklahoma City National Memorial is a multipart memorial site that incorporates a number of symbolic elements, the most arresting being the ____.
Field of Empty Chairs
Which of the following is central to Peter Eisenman's Holocaust Memorial in Berlin?
a sense of loss and absence
Peter Eisenman placed 2711 gray, concrete ____ side by side to create a sense of claustrophobia at the Berlin Holocaust Memorial.
Which of the following monuments is considered a traditional triumphal design?
1. Oklahoma City Memorial
2. Berlin Holocaust Memorial
3. Vietnam Veterans Memorial
4. none of these choices
5. National World War II Memorial
National World War II Memorial
Which of the following statements about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is not correct?
1. It has 200 foot long black granite walls.
2. The designer was a 22 year old Chinese American woman.
3. There is a large label that states who is being memorialized.
4. The work is antiheroic and antitriumphal.
5. One must descend into the ground to read the list of names.
There is a large label that states who is being memorialized.
Goldsworthy's Storm King Wall snakes through fields and around trees, ____ and reappears to continue along the landscape.
dips into a pond
For The Ice Cube Project, Marco Evaristti and his crew ____ on an almost 10,000 square foot iceberg off the Greenland coast.
sprayed red dye
In Robert Smithson's Yucatan Mirror Displacements, the mirrors transform the environment by interrupting the ____.
For The Gates, Christo and Jeanne-Claude installed ____ throughout Central Park in February of 2005.
saffron colored fabric panels
Which artist used their body as a building site for miniature dwellings for the work entitled Landscape-Body-Dwelling?
For her "Volcano" Series, Ana Mendieta marked the presence of ____ in the landscape using various methods and materials.
The Native American dwellings at Mesa Verde, Colorado used ____ as part of the back support for more than one hundred rectangular ____.
cliff walls; apartments
Because it rests on a square base, the dome of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is supported by four triangular surfaces known as ____.
In Hiroshi Sugimoto's Go-oh Shrine, by using both smooth and rough areas of wood and stone, the architect reveals that his primary emphasis is to create contrasts in ____.
____, primarily used for covering roofs of structures, acquire their strength from the fact that the sides of a triangle, once joined, cannot be forced out of shape.
Originally a derisive term, ____ uses mass produced, light, easily handled cuts of wood and metal nails for the assembly of millions of homes and small buildings on site.
Richard Morris Hunt's Griswold House, built in 1863, was designed in the short-lived ____ style. Its exterior treatment resembled an assemblage of matchsticks with many turrets, gables, and dormers.
The 17,000 almost identical small homes built in post-World War II Levittown, New York, are a reflection of the ____.
need for mass suburban housing for growing metropolitan areas
Nineteenth-century industrialization led to the development of ____ as a building material, and it was the first material to allow the erection of tall buildings with relatively slender walls.
Louis Sullivan's rigid horizontal and vertical processions of façade elements that suggest the regularity of the spaces within his Wainwright Building reinforce Sullivan's famous motto that ____.
"form follows function"
The original idea for reinforced concrete began in the 1860s with Jacques Monier, who proposed strengthening concrete ____ with wire mesh.
The prehistoric Stonehenge is one of the earliest examples of ____ construction, in which two stones were set vertically and a third stone laid across them, creating an opening beneath.
Which of the following structures did Tokyo architect Shigeru Ban not design?
1. Paper Refugee shelter
2. MOMA paper-tube arch
3. Nomadic Museum
4. Paper museum
5. Pod House
In Frank Lloyd Wright's famous "Fallingwater," he made use of reinforced concrete to produce ____.
Which of the following statements about steel cable construction, first used to build the Brooklyn Bridge, is not true?
1. It has great tensile strength.
2. It is flexible, allowing the roadway underneath to sway.
3. It can be aesthetically pleasing.
4. Its many parallel wires share the stress.
5. It can only span very short distances.
It can only span very short distances.
____ designed a type of shell architecture for the American Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal known as the ____.
Buckminster Fuller; geodesic dome
The assertive clashing of shapes in Frank Gehry's high-tech Ray and Maria Stata Center at MIT symbolizes ____.
the diverse disciplines that will be housed in the structure
Peter Testa believes we "need to rethink how we assemble buildings" and has designed a high-rise tower out of ____.
woven carbon fiber
The Incan fortress of Machu Picchu is considered to be ____ construction, as it was built without any mortar.
The interior of the Egyptian temple of Amen-Re at Karnak is cluttered by a forest of columns because of the ____.
weight of the massive stone lintels
One of the best preserved ancient Roman aqueduct systems is the ____ near Nimes, France. The ____ of the limestone blocks allowed for the weight of three tiers of arches.
Pont du Gard; compressive strength
The Church of St. Michael at Hildesheim, Germany, built in the Ottonian period (1001-1031), has square bays and its walls are blank and massive. This is due to its ____.
____ are constructed by placing barrel vaults at right angles to cover a square space known as a ____.
Groin vaults; bay
The Church of St. Étienne was one of the first cathedrals to use true ribbed vaulting, allowing a(n) ____ to be pierced through the walls from which light could enter the nave of the church.