How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
(A phosphate group is transferred from glyceraldehyde phosphate to ADP.)
Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?
(It is a product of the citric acid cycle.)
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
(Acetyl CoA is a reactant in the citric acid cycle.)
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
(A phosphate group is transferred from GTP to ADP.)
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
(Acetyl CoA is a reactant in the citric acid cycle.)
(ATP, FADH2, NADH + H+, CO2 are all products)
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.
(Each glucose produces two pyruvates, each of which is converted into acetyl CoA.)
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
(3 NADH + H+ are produced per each acetyl CoA that enters the citric acid cycle.)
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
(This process utilizes energy released by electron transport.)
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
(Oxygen is combined with electrons and hydrogen to form water.)
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
(The energy released as electrons, which have been donated by NADH and FADH2, is passed along the electron transport chain and used to pump hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space.)
ATP synthase phosphorylates ADP.
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
(Concentration gradients are a form of potential energy.)
The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction
loses electrons and loses energy.
Which of the following statements describes NAD+?
NAD+ is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
Where does glycolysis takes place?
The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?
Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high energy foods?
They have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen.
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed during glycolysis?
n addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the "net" products of glycolysis are
2 NADH, 2 H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O.
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate
2 molecules of ATP are used and 4 molecules of ATP are produced.
A molecule that is phosphorylated
has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work.
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?
It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.
In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and 3) is bonded to coenzyme A.
These three steps result in the formation of
acetyl CoA, NADH, H+, and CO2.
During cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location?
For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, what is the total number of NADH + FADH2 molecules produced?
Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which of the following?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?
energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location?
mitochondrial intermembrane space
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is the
creation of a proton gradient.
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
It is possible to prepare vesicles from portions of the inner membrane of the mitochondrial components. Which one of the following processes could still be carried on by this isolated inner membrane?
Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water?
oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is
the H+ concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is