Determine the Big O of the following code:
for ( i = 0; i < n; i++)
for (j = 0; j < n; j++)
sum += a[i][j];
For reference types, what do == and != test?
The equality of pointer values (i.e. do they have the exact same data address in memory?)
How can you find the Big O of an if statement?
The max of the Big O of the test, then statement, and else statement
How does the constructing of a linked list work?
A linked list links new elements onto the front of the list.
In a Cons list, first and rest have different types. What are they?
First can be any Object type, while rest is a Cons or null
What are base cases?
Simple inputs for which the answer is obvious and can be determined immediately.
What are contents of a linked list?
Something as simple as a number, or a pointer to another linked list
What are the advantages of LinkedList?
getFirst, addFirst, removeFirst, getLast, addLast, removeLast are all O(1)
What are the advantages to ArrayList?
get and set are O(1), and add and remove at the end are O(1) so it makes a good stack
What are the different representations of trees that we are concerned with for Novak's class?
Binary trees, First-Child/Next-sibling, Linked lists, Implicit
What does depth-first search do?
It searches children of a node before siblings are considered (through recursion)
What does it mean for a function to be intractable?
It can only be computed when n is relatively small (for example, exponential)
What does it mean for functions to share structure?
The same list structure is part of more than one list.
What does it mean for something to be random access?
Access to any element has the same cost (for example, arrays)
What does it mean to divide and conquer?
To break down a large problem into two smaller problems, until the problem becomes easy
What does the function (cons item list) do?
It makes a new list element containing item, and adds it to the front of list
What does the function assoc do?
It provides a simple lookup tool to find information in a linked list
What does the function member do?
It tests whether a given item is an element of a list. It returns the remainder of the list beginning with the desired element
What does the function nconc do?
It concatenates two lists to form a single list; it does so by modifying the end of the first list to point to the second list
What does the function reverse do to a linked list?
It makes a new linked list whose elements are in reverse order of the original list
What does the function Union do?
It returns the set of elements that are members of either set (basically all elements with no duplicates)
What is a "thing" concerning linked lists?
A simple item such as a number or string or a balanced pair of parenthesis and everything inside of them.
What is a circularly linked list?
The last link points back to the front of the list rather than to null or nil
What is a constructive function?
A function that creates a new list, but does not modify the original list's arguments
What is a destructive argument?
A function that creates a list but modifies the original list's arguments
What is a fair data structure?
An entry in a queue will eventually get serviced and removed so a queue is fair
What is a First-Child / Next-Sibling Tree?
Down arrows represent the first child, while side arrows represent the next sibling
What is a pointer (aka reference)?
The memory address of the beginning of a record, or block of storage
What is a runtime stack?
a stack that keeps a fresh set of values for each variable in a stack frame
What is an abstract data type?
a description of operations on a data type that could have multiple possible implementations.
What is an association list?
It is a list of pairs, where each pair has a key, and a value associated with the key
What is garbage?
it can be data that is incorrect, meaningless, or random, or storage that is no longer pointed to
What is inorder?
an order of processing a tree in which the parent node is processed in between its children
What is XML?
Extensible Markup Language, it allows users to put tags around their data to describe what the pieces of data mean
What will a filter function do?
Filter removes items from a Collection if they meet a certain condition
When the ratio of times as the size of input is doubled is somewhat larger than 2, what is the Big O?
O( n*log(n) )
When there is a straight line on a log-log graph, what does the slope represent?
The order of the polynomial
With respect to linked lists, what does .set(idx, element) do?
Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the specified element.