- From "The Future of American Power" by Fareed Zakaria
- marks the moment when British power began to decline
- Fought to defend the rights of the English-speaking people of the Boer republic, who were treated like 2nd class citizen by the Boers.
- Boer region discovered that it contained gold in 1886; it produced a quarter of the world's gold supply
- London noticed the gold potential, Boers launched a premtive strike, and in 1899 started a war.
- Boer army = 45,000 vs. British army = 450,000 --> Boer surrender in 1902
- From "The Future of American Power" by Fareed Zakaria
- The term started with the British
- Describes the appeal of culture and ideas
- Claudio Veliz, in the 17th centry, noticed that the two leading powers, Britian and Spain, tried to export their ideas and practices to their Western colonies.
- Britian wanted religious pluralism and capitalism to flurish
- The British were arguably the most successful exporters of their culutre in early human history
- "The American Dream" and "The English way of life" are soft power phrases that display the appeal of culture and ideas.
Leading from Behind:
- From "The Consequentalist" by Ryan Lizza
- Used to describe Obama's actions in Libya by one of his advisors.
- The term derives from two unspoken beliefs:
1. The relative power of the US in declining and the power of Chine is increasing.
2. The US is reviled in many parts of the world.
- Pursuing interests and spreading ideals thus requires stealth and modesty as well as military strength.
- Not necessarily the loss of power, but taking a back seat in international affairs.
-topic: David Stannard's American Holocaust
-Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus "discovered" America in 1492.
-Europeans brought diseases to America such as influenza , small pox , measels, &typhus fever.
-Europeans also transformed landscape by bringing over plants, seeds, &weeds.
-according to David Stannard, Europeans killed over 100 million Native Americans
-Topic: David Stannard's American Holocaust
-capital of Aztec Empire
-built on an island in Lake Texcoco
-became largest and most powerful city in Mesoamerica
-believed was the largest city in the world alongside Paris &Constantinople
-population of about 200,000-300,000 people-Aztec ruler Moctezua II welcomed Hernan Cortez (Spanish Conquistador) into city on Nov 8, 1519, thinking he was a god
-Hernan Cortez conquered Tenotchtitlan on August 13, 1521
-topic: David Stannard's American Holocaust
-the slaughter of Native Americans by the Europeans
-over 100 million Native Americans were killed
-population decreased by about 95%
-lasted about 400 years
-many Americans were killed by smashing their heads in public
-many treaties signed but never passed
-lead over 6 over sea expeditions for China in the 15th century as admiral
-traveled to the East China Sea, South China Sea, &even as far as Africa to trade goods
-commanded a fleet as much as 200 ships
Middle Passage: Topic: Slavery/ reference Olaudah Equiano;
Was the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean or the "Middle Passage". The human cargo was transported form Africa Across the Atlantic Ocean and brought to the New World. To cross the Atlantic could take up to 90 days to 4 months--Slaves are chained together in uncomfortable positions, surrounded by horrible conditions(feces, crowded together, disease, etc) The women were abused sexually by the ship mates and people were abused all together to keep order on the ship to keep from rebellion by the slaves.
--2 million people died in the crossing
--"World greatest Migration" -- Lecture
-- A complex system that existed over a large geographic area./ Helped establish or was the building block for modern society.
Olaudah Equiano: Ibo tribe, Guinea Africa(modern day Nigeria) AKA Gustavus Vassa:
Kidnapped in 1755, brough to the New World also to England.
--Gave account for his fellow slaves about his life and the life of a slave and the struggle to become a free man
--What does it mean to be free?; how does his identity change from Ibo --> African American, Black.
--Important for thier rarity-- Bolster for Abolitionist Movement Ex) Sojourner Truth
--Example of triumph over immense adverisity, were parables of freedom to those who could really appreciate it.
--Look into the life of a slave
--Revises the question of who really upholds, lives the example of freedom--Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness,
That slavery comes to wholey define the economy, and politics and society.
--Slave Breeding in America and Europe so not to have to import slaves from Africa; African Lands of indigenous value became sites of labor.
--*Political structure of the American South--White vs. Black: can't vote, seperate but equall, Jim Crowe.
RACE & RACISM:
1. Is a self created problem
2. Is a systemic way of thinking of the world,
influenced Electoral Politics
Prison Law system
Racism backed by FEAR: Allows white to have access to resources, whites have had more power over the years.
3. Is a system of categorization and Social stratefication based on percieved physical characteristics, reinforced by economic and political power.
White freedom vs. Black freedom
Unequal terms of trade: In any given transaction; more energy is expelled on on side that the other,
A society that has a # of people in servitude--> the community gets $--> for example, Africa 's population went down, getting poor and decimated. While American Econoly went up.
--Even relate this to Holocaust-- Migration of Jews and others to Camps, prolonged enslavement--thier pop. went down when the German production went up.
The British territory on the east coast of Canada where runaway slaves who fought for the British in the revolutionary war were taken and promised freedom. Unfortunatlly it did not work out as promised.
- From the film Rough Crossings
- White, british leader for the voyage to freedom
- Suffered on voyage from fever
- Was weakened and suffered from memory loss
- was appointed the Governor for the new colony
- decides to go back to England after 18 months
- Repairing the Past: New efforts in the reparations debate in America, by Charles J. Ogletree Jr.
- Commission to study reparations proposals for African-American Act.
- Proposed by John Coyners, the bill is intended to acknowledge the fundemental injustice, cruelty, brutality and inhumanity of slavery in the United States and the 13 American colonies between 1619 and 1865.
- Sanford Dole was a lawyer and jurist in the Hawaiian Islands as a kingdom, protectorate, republic and territory. Dole and other lawyers of American descent drafted this document, which became known as the "Bayonet Constitution." Dole was named president of the Provisional Government of Hawaii that was formed after the coup, and was recognized within 48 hours by all nations with diplomatic ties to the Kingdom of Hawaii, with the exception of the United Kingdom.
military uses the valley for live fire training
the valley is home to endangered plants/animals and artifacts. Talked about in "Noho Hewa" Makua meaning parent, think about the connections Hawaiians have with the land and how there is an immense military presence and control over these lands, the lead poisoning and exploitive means against the locals.
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of themeans of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is madeand maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations,especially as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned meansof wealth.
- From Marx
- Capital has the tendency for concentration and centralization in the hands of the richest Capitalists
- Larger Capitals beat the smaller
- Competition --> cheapening of commodities
- a lot of small vs. a few large (large wins)
person of upper class like a merchant.
person of low class, working class
consciousness of one's social class or economic rank in society. Lower, middle upper.
Democracy that is run only by upper class people.
Communism-tried to make a classless society. only working class.
The leftover refuse after the pig metal has been run, what Hugh Wolfe from Life in the Iron Mills uses to sculpt "The Korl Woman"
the victim of Life in the Iron Mills, a poor Iron Mills worker who wants to know what makes his bosses better than himself, he finds the answer in money. Deborah's love interest who steals her bosses money to give to Hugh so they can get out of town. He turns it in and is in turn sentenced to 19 years hard labor, instead of suffering anymore he commits suicide.
using diplomacy or military force to help strengthen a countries power &influence. unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationships, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination.
political ideology. tries to eliminate the different social classes ( bourgeoisie and the proletariat).
radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists believe that a nation requires strong leadership, singular collective identity, and the will and ability to commit violence and wage war in order to keep the nation strong. single party totalitarian rule. ruled by a "supreme leader" also known as a dictator.
marxist-leninst ideology. Stalins economic &political authority. included rapid industrialization. totalitarian rule.
Painting by Pablo Picasso of the civillian struggle during a civil battle in spain
The total extermination of all Jews
- The Nazis plan and execution (genocide) of Jews/ annihilation
- culmination of a decade of increasingly severe discriminatory measures
- gas chambers, killing centers
- included Gypsies and Homosexuals
- Auschwitz II --> gas chamber --> ~ 1 mil Jews killed
- ~ 6 million Jews were killed during the Holocaust (2/3 of all the Jews living in Europe before the Holocaust)
the German equivalent of "elbow room", The territory mostly believed by Nazis to be necessary for national existence or economic self suficiency. The contention that german speaking peoples had been forced to living under foriegn governments and the land that they occupied must be brought back under German control, was an excuse to invade and subjugate neighboring countries;
China, the Japanese invasion of China. "rape of nanjing" an estimated 300,000 chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were killed, raped, etc. Japanese war crime.
First stategic bombing of civilians in WWII.
- From "WWII" week and Murray Sayle's "Did the Bomb End the War?"
- The test sight for Air Marshal Sir Arthur Harris' radical new tactic called "Window" which was dropping strips of aluminum foid and a primitive airborne radar that pained a crude picture of the terrain below.
- 1.5 citizens
- RAF attacked with 728 aircraft (B-17s) 25 July 1943
- Birthplace of the "firestorm"
- a city in Germany
- a target for many strategic bombing missions
- a large industrial center which included shipyards, u-boat pins, and oil refineries
- The Battle of Hamburg: received a campaign of air raids that lasted 8 days and 7 nights
- nicknamed the "Hiroshima of Germany"