PSYC Chapter Nine

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The process by which acyivities are started, directed, and sustained to meet a person's wants is called __________.

Motivation

Liz picked out "her" desk on the first day of class. But in the second class period, someone else is sitting in "her" chosen seat. Liz's territorial attitude about that desk and her negative feelings toward the "interloper" sitting there might best be explained by which of the following?

Drive-reduction approach

Poeple high in the need for __________ want to be liked by others and are good team players.

Affiliation

Ronnie believes that people are just born smart or not smart, and he thinks of himself as "not smart." As a result, Ronnie doesn't really try all that hard to succeed in school. Dweck would say that Ronnie's achievement motivation is being affected by his __________.

External locus of control.

In the __________ approach, people are said to have an optimal level of tension.

Arousal

Which of the following approaches to motivation has ties to the basic principles of learning and the concept of reinforcement?

Incentive

The most basic need in Maslow's hierarchy are __________ needs.

Physiological

Jamal gets a new toy for every good grade on his report card in the first grade. Toys are providing Jamal with __________.

Extrinsic motivation.

Which of the following is not one of the physiological facyors in hunger?

Corpus callosum

If calorie intake stays the same, as the basal metabolic rate decreases, the weight set point __________.

Increases.

People who are __________ respond to the anticipation of eating with higher insulin levels.

Externals.

According to researchers at Yale, children arer more likely to eat cereals with __________.

Cartoon characters on the box.

Which of the following is NOT on of the throo elements of emotion?

Attention

Much of what we know about the amygdala's role in emotion comes from studies of autonomic and behavioral responses revealed through __________.

Fear conditioning

The theory of emotion that states that the thalamus sends sensory information to the cortex and the sympathetic organs at the same time is the __________ theory.

Cannon-Bard

In Schachter and Singer's classic study, participants who were exposed to the "angry" man interpreted their physiological arousal as __________, whereas those who were exposed to the "happy" man interpreted their arousal as __________.

Angry; happy

Leslie smiles a lot in the classroom, which in turn prompts his students to smile, making them feel happier too. This effect is best explained by which of the following theories of emotion?

James-Lange

In the __________ theory of emotion, the most important aspect of an emotional experience is the interpretation, or appraisal, of the stimulus.

Cognitive-mediational

The approach to motivation that forced psychologists to consider the hereditary foctors in motivation was the __________ approach.

Instinct

The need for money is an example of a(n) __________ drive.

Acquired

Jocelyn needs to be the one whose ideas are always used and craves prestige among others. She drives an expensive car and wears nothing but the most expensive clothes. Jocelyn is high in the need for

Power.

People who are always looking for a challenge may be high in the need for

achievement.

Evidence from a study with 2-year-olds who were given an opportunity to explore a black box with a hole in it suggests that sensation seeking may be

acquired over time

Gene is trying to choose a snack. There is a bowl of fruit on the table, but there's also a candy bar that he bought yesterday. The fact that Gene feels drawn to choose the candy bar instead of the fruit is an example of the power of

incentives

According to Maslow, a person who wants to become self-actualized must first satisfy

more basic needs such as food and safety

Shontia works at a day care center. The pay is low and the hours are long, but she loves being around children and has no desire to look for a higher-paying job. Shontia's motivation appears to be

intrinsic

When we eat, the pancreas releases __________ , which lowers blood sugar and can increase the feeling of hunger.

insulin

The structure in the brain that, when damaged, causes rats to stop eating is called the

lateral hypothalamus

The rate at which your body burns energy when at rest is called the

basal metabolic rate

According to Rodin, externals are people who may produce insulin in response to anticipating food as a result of

classical conditioning

If there is a history of obesity in a family, each family member has __________ of becoming obese compared to people without such a family history

double or triple the risk

Leptin is a __________ involved in appetite control

hormone

Your heart is racing, your breathing is rapid, and your mouth is dry. What emotion are you experiencing?

It is not always possible to distinguish one emotion from another by physiological reactions only

Dora is experiencing positive emotions while Milly is experiencing negative emotions. If researchers are examining EEG recordings of their brains, where are they most likely to see increases in activity?

In Dora's left frontal lobe and Milly's right frontal lobe.

The __________ is a brain structure that allows us to quickly and unconsciously respond to potentially dangerous stimuli before we are completely conscious of the threat.

Amygdala

In Schachter and Singer's classic study, participants were physically aroused by

receiving epinephrine

The theory of emotion that owes a lot to Darwin's work is the __________ theory

facial feedback

Through pairing cartoon or movie characters with different food items, researchers gave found characters can influence children's __________.

Taste preferences.

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) may be involved in ________.

the onset of eating

Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as ________ in arousal theory.

a sensation seeker

According to cognitive-mediational theories, appraisal of the situation would come ________ the physical arousal and ________ the experience of emotion.

before; before

You are walking in the forest and see a bear. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, what happens next?

emotion and physiology occur simultaneously.

________ can vary from culture to culture and are socially acceptable ways of showing emotion in public settings.

Display rules

Which division of the nervous system is working when we experience emotions?

sympathetic division of the nervous system

You are walking through a store when you run into a friend you have not seen in a long time and whom you miss very much. According to the James-Lange theory, what might happen?

You experience physiological changes followed by a feeling of happiness.

Schachter and Singer proposed that two things have to happen before emotion occurs: ________ and ________.

physical arousal; labeling

Which of the following is correct concerning the interaction of culture and food?

American women eat when they are depressed whereas Japanese women eat because of social demands.

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, when Jose complies with instructions to look angry, it is most likely that ________.

his positive feelings will decrease

Which hormone is secreted into the bloodstream by fatty tissue to signal the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food, reducing appetite and increasing the feeling of being full?

leptin

Hormones secreted by the pancreas after we begin to eat to control fat levels, proteins, and carbohydrates are called ________ and ________.

insulin; glucogon

Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on predictions made by the Yerkes-Dodson Law?

difficulty of task

The theory stating that behaviors are motivated by an organism's attempts to reduce tension from conditions such as hunger or thirst and return the body to a state of balance is called ________ theory.

drive-reduction

According to Abraham Maslow, developing one's potential to its fullest extent results in

self-actualization

One interesting thing about incentive approaches is that incentives ________.

exist independently of any need or level of arousal

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