Anatomy Muscles Test Review

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sarcomere

the contractile unit in a muscle cell; separated by z-bands

actin

a type of myofilament (protein) found in thin filament

myosin

a type of myofilament (protein) found in thick filament

epimysium

An external connective tissue that covers fascicles

perimysium

A type of connective tissue surrounding each fasicle; the CT enveloping bundles of muscle fibers

fasicle

A bundle of muscle celles bound by CT to form a functional unit

acetylcholine

the name of the neurotransmitter used at the synapse for contraction

abduction

movement along the frontal plane, away from the body midline; raising arm laterally

circumduction

describing a cone-shaped pathway with a limb

dorsiflexion

movement of the superior aspect of the foot toward the leg; standing on the heels

elevation

lifting or raising a body part; shrugging the shoulders

flexion

movement along the sagittal plane that decreases the angle between two bones

gliding

slight displacement or slipping of bones, as might occur between the carpals of the wrist

inversion

turning the sole of the foot medially

plantar flexion

pointing the toes down

protraction

movement of a body part anteriorly; jutting the lower jaw forward

retraction

movement of a body part posteriorly; moving the lower jaw backwards

rotation

circular movement around the longitudinal bone axis; shaking head "no"

supination

moving the hand into a palm-up, or forward, position

pronation

moving the hands with palms facing backwards

tendon

cord of dense, fibrous tissue attaching muscle to a bone

adduction

moving arms towards the body

origin

the part attached to the immovable (or less moveable) bone

insertion

the part attached to the moveable bone, and move towards the origin when contracted

eversion

turn sole of foot laterally

opposition

moving thumbs to each finger

prime mover

the super-hero; muscle that has major responsibility for a particular movement; EX: biceps brachii

antagonist

the villain; muscles that reverse or oppose a movement; EX: triceps

synergists

the sidekick; help prime movers by producing same movement, or reducing undesireable movement; EX: wrist when making a fist

fixators

the bat-mobile; "specialized-synergists" hold bone still or stabilize origin so tension can be used to move insertion to bone; EX: back muscles

endomysium

the thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell

myofilaments

proteins that make up a myofibril

A-Bands

the dark band

I-Band

the light band

z-line

the separations between the bands on a myofibril

ATP

Used for energy, and loses a phosphate making it ADP

circular fascicle arrangement

fascicles arranged in concentric rings
EX: obicularis oris

parallel fascicle arrangement

length fascicles run parallel to long axis of muscle
EX: satorius; rectus abdominus

convergent fascicle arrangement

fascicles converge to a single insertion tendon
EX: pectoralis major; temporalis

fusiform fascicle arrangement

spindle-shaped with expanded belly
EX: biceps brachii, triceps brachii

unipennate fascicle arrangement

Short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon on one side
EX: external oblique

bipennate fascicle arrangement

short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon on two sides
EX: rectus femoris; gastrocnemius

multipennate fascicle arrangement

short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon on two sides; looks like many feathers side by side
EX: deltoid

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