rich soil made up of sand and mud deposited by running water
in the desert, a stream bed that is dry except for during a heavy rain
term for deserts in central asia
natural mineral containing chemical compounds often use in fertilizers
small area in the desert where water and vegetation are found
the raising of livestock
any grain grown for food
differences among groups of people based on their languages, origins, customs, or combinations of such characteristics
the basic urban necessities like streets and utilities.
to adapt plants or animals from the world to make them useful to people.
a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward
Sumerian writing system using wedge-shaped symbols pressed into clay tablets.
Egyptian writing system using pictures and symbols to represent words and sounds
underground canal used in water systems of ancient Persians
belief in one God
person believed to be a messenger from God
in Islam, a house of public worship
large, distinct ethnic groups within a country
in place a company or industry under government control
a ban on trade
large step-like temple of mud and brick built in ancient Mesopotamia
member of the nomadic desert people of North Africa and Southwest Asia
a traditional marketplace ranging from a single street of stalls to an entire city district.
suitable for growing crops
goods produced for sale.
chemical product derived from petroleum or natural gas
gross domestic product (GDP)
the value of goods and services within a country in a year
in Islam, the yearly pilgrimage to Makkah
underground water-bearing layers of porous rock, sand, and gravel
the removal of salt from seawater to make it usable for drinking and farming
country with petroleum-based economy
group of oil-producing countries
long network of underground or aboveground pipes
network of road, rail, and air transportation systems
polluted region at the southern end of the Caspian Sea
Garagum Desert (Kara Kum Desert)
black sand desert which covers most of Turkmenistan
Longest river in the world, produces fertile soil, overflows in the spring and carries the soil and water to the dry deserts of Egypt.