chapter 15- lymphatic system

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what is the lymphatic system made up of?

lymph, lymph vessels, lymph tissue, lymphocytes, lymph organs, red bone marrow

functions of the lymphatic system

drains IF, immune functions, absorption of fats

lymph

fluid in tissue spaces tht carries protein molecules & other substances back to the blood

lymphatic vessels

one way movement of lymph fluid away from tissue

lymphatic capillaries

microscopic, everywhere except bone marrow, CNS & tissues w/o blood vessels, thin, porous

lymphatic nodes

small bean shaped, 1000's in body, in clusters, filter lymph, perform biological filtration, defense & WBC formation

where do axillary nodes drain?

wupper extremities, thoracic region

where do cervical nodes drain?

head, face

whre do inguinal nodes drain?

lower extremities, lower abdomen-thigh, hip, prineum

where do popliteal nodes drain?

foot, leg

where do submental & submaxillary nodes drain?

mouth, nose, lips, teeth

where do cubital/supratrochlear nodes drain?

forearms

where do pelvic cavity nodes drain?

pelvic organs

where do thoracic cavity nodes drain?

thoracic cavity

where do abdominal cavity nodes drain?

abdominal viscera

right lymphatic ducts

drains lymph from the right upper extremity and right side of head, neck and upper torso

thoracic duct

largest lymmphatic vessel draining lymph from 3 fourths of the body, all but the right quarter

2 final empying ducts

thoracic and right lymphatic

cistera chyli

dilated area at base of thoracic duct, located below diaphragm in lubar region in abdominal cavity, collects and temp stores lymph from lower extremities & abdomen

3 main causes of edema

cardiovascular dysfunction, lymphatic dysfunction, trauma

edema due to cardio condition

hypertension, complication of diabetes, obesity, pregnancy, insufficiency of veins

traumatic edema

excessive fluid spills into the damaged tissue, increased protein cells too lg to move into venous capillaries, fliud moved into lymphatic capillaries

lymphatic dysfunction-lymphedema

swelling caused by blockage of lymph vessels, too much IF, complication of surgery or mastectomy

lymphangitis

inflammation of lymph vessels, can become septicemia

elephantiasis

severe lymphedema of limbs resulting from parasite infestation of lymph vessels

lymph massage contraindications

kidney disease, CHF (congestive heart failure), presence of thrombophlebitis

lymphadenopothy

malignant tumor of lymph nodes, 2 types--hodgkins and non hodgkins

hodgkins disease

most common form of lymphoma, painless swelling in neck, progresses to other regions

non hodgkins disease

lymphocytic leukemia, more malignant, faster growing

thymus

lymphiod tissue organ in mediastinem, part of lymphatic and endocrine systems, controls development of body's immune system, produces thymusin and t-lymphocytes

tonsils

cluster of lymphoid tissues, provides protection, 3 masses

palatine tonsils

mass of lymph tissue in back of throat, can't see

pharyngeal tonsils

adenoids, back up and behind the nose

lingual tonsils

behind the tongue

tonsilitis

affects the palantine, viral or bactrial, when active massage contraindicated

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

dysphasia

difficulty in communicating

spleen

largest lymphoid organ, blood reservoir in upper left quadrant of abdomen, injured by trauma to abdomen

functions of the spleen

destroys old RBC's, recycles hgb, supply blood to circulatory system if hemorrhage happens, cleanses blood by acting as a filter

spleenectomy

surgical removal of spleen

splenomegaly

enlargement of spleen

peyer's patches

on wall of small intestine, destroys bacteria

lacteals

milky appearance, in small intestine, absorbs lipids

appendix

located at ileocecal valve (junction of lg and sm intestine), filter or trap for pathogens from GI tract, may replenish bacteria for intestines

immune system functions

immunity, development of lymphocytes (t & B cells), protects body from bacteria, foreign or cancerous cells

antigens

substances that are nonself, foreign proteins, when in body trigger an immune response

anibodies

protein compounds normally in body, transported to infection site

primary response

antigen is detected, antibodies are produced & transported by blood & lymph to site where they inactivate the invading antigens

secondary response

if previous exposure occurred, memory cells remain dormant until same antigen returns then recognize and respond

antigen-antibody complexes

neutralize toxins, agglutinate enemy cells, promote phagocytosis, aka humoral immunity/antibody-mediated immunity

complement proteins

normal inactive presence in blood, activated by antibody exposure

complement fixation

results from exposure to antibodies, from antigen/antibody complex that targets foreign cells & destroys, causes cell lysis by permitting entry of H20

non-specific immunity

aka innate immunity, present at birth, general protection, ex; skin, tears & mucus, WBC ability to go to area of inflammation

specific immunity

aka adaptive immunity, takes time to recognize targets & reacts, 2 characteristics-specificity & memory, ex; chicken pox, influenza, herpes

inherited or inborn immunity

immunity to certain diseases from birth, probs in animals but not humans, ex; distemper

acquired immunity

4 ways to gain-active & passive (reacting to antigen), natural & artificial (how it is obtained)

natural immunity

exposure to causative agent, not deliberate

natural active immunity

having disease produces immunity, contract disease & produce memory cells

natural passive immunity

immunity passes from mom to fetus thru placenta, from mom to child thru mom's milk

artificial immunity

deliberate exposure to causative agent

artificial active immunity

vaccination results in immunity, memory cells produced

artificial passive immunity

protective material developed in anothers immune system and given to non-immune person, immediate temp protection, booster is needed

types of phagocytes

neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages

neutrophils

phagocyte, small granular leukocyte

monocyte

phagocyte, largest of WBC's

macrophages

phagocyte, mature monocyte

lymphocyes

most numerous of immune cells, 2 types T & B cells

B-lymphocytes

migrate fr bone marrow then 2 stages of development

2 stages of B cell development

1st-stem cells develop into immature B cells (in liver & bone marrow b4 birth, in bone marrow only as adult), 2nd-immautre B cell develops into active B cell then divide repeatedly for memory cells

plasma cells

antibody, secrete lg amounts of antibodies into the blood, secretes what memory cell tell them to

memory cells

antibody, remain in reserve in the lymph nodes til needed, old B cell that remembers certain antigen

functions of B cells

do not attack pathogens but produce antibodies (plasma and memory cells) that attack

T lymphocytes

cell-mediated immunity, migrate fr bone marrow to thymus, become killer T cells destroy pathogens, more direct than B cells, directly attack invading pathogens

2 stages of T cell development

1st-stem cells into T cells, in thymus b4 & after birth, migrate to lymph nodes, 2nd-t cells develop into sensetized t cells

natural killer cells (NK cells)

another defense cell, not B or T, type of lymphocyte, puts chemicals in granules in cytoplasm, broad action, kills tumor cells and virus infected cells

autoimmunity

inappropriate excessive response to self-antigens, causes autoimmune diseases

autoimmune disease

person's own immune system attacks its own body tissues ex; rheumatiod arthritis, MS (attacks myelin sheaths), allergy-hypersensitivity

isoimmunity

excessive reaction to antigens fr another human, immune response to another person's antigens leads to rejection syndrome, occurs b/t mother and fetus (rh factor), or tissue transplants

congenital immune deficiency or immunodeficiency (rare)

bubble babies, improper lymphocyte development b4 birth

acquired immune deficiency

develops after birth, ex; aids (caused by hiv infection of T cells)

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