Biology Final Prep (Ch 3&4) - Pacific College of Oriental Medicine

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Bio. final terms from Biology class at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine (Chpts. 3 &4)

Organic Molecules

Molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

4 Most Common Elements Found in Living Organisms

Isomer

Organic molecules that have identical molecular formulas but a different arrangement of atoms. They have variations in the molecular architecture of a molecule.

Dehydration Reaction

Synthesis of a biomolecule when subunits bond during this named reaction with the removal of H2O.

Monosaccharides

Monomers of carbohydrates

Polymer

Largest of the biomolecules

Monomer

Subunit of a polymer

Enzyme

A molecule that speeds a reaction by bringing reactants together

Disaccharide

Contains (2) monosaccharides that have joined during a dehydration reaction. It is also a carbohydrate.

Polysaccharide

Polymers of monosaccharides and are much larger than sugar. Also known as short-term energy storage molecules. When an organism requires energy, this molecule is broken down to release sugar molecules (pg. 42). It is also known as a carbohydrate.

Starch

Plants store this glucose and when in plants, it is called by this name.

Glycogen

Animals store glucose in liver cells containing granules where this glucose is stored until needed. The storage and release of this glucose from liver cells is under the control of hormones. What is this glucose called in animals / vertebrates?

Cellulose

A structural polysaccharide found in plants. It is also the most abundant carbohydrate and most abundant organic molecule on Earth.

Chitin

A structural polysaccharide found in animals and fungi and cannot be digested by animals. Seeds are also coated with this material. It has antibacterial and antiviral properties and is processed and used in medicine as a wound dressing and suture material. It is also useful during the production of cosmetics and various foods.

Peptidoglycan

A structural polysaccharide found in bacteria.

Triglycerides

Long term energy storage consisting of (2) types of subunit molecules: fatty acids and glycerol

Fatty Acid

Consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a -COOH (carboxyl) group at one end. These subunit molecules are either saturated or unsaturated.

Saturated Fatty Acids

Have no double bonds between the carbon atoms (i.e. - milk and butter)

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Have double bond in the carbon chain wherever the number of hydrogens is less than (2) per carbon atom (i.e. - corn and corn oil). This fatty acid has a kink in its molecular chain.

Glycerol

A compound with 3 OH groups. It is soluble in water. Because there are (3) fatty acids attached to each molecule, fats and oils are sometimes called triglycerides. Nearly all animals use fat in preference to this molecule for long-term energy storage as gram for gram, fat stores more energy than this molecule.

Phospholipid

Contains a polar phosphate group and essentially is constructed like a fat, except that in place of the 3rd fatty acid attached to glycerol, there is a polar phosphate group.

Kinks

The fluidity of the plasma membrane is due to these in the phospholipids' tails.

Phospholipids

Have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails and tend to arrange themselves so that only the polar heads are adjacent to a watery medium.

Steroids

Lipids that have entirely different structures from those of fats. They have skeletons of four fused carbon rings. Each type of these lipids differs primarily by the types of functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton. Examples are: cholesterol and the sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen)

Waxes

Long-chain fatty acids that bond with alcohol. they are solid at normal temperatures because they have a high melting point. They are hydrophobic, are waterproof and resistant to degradation. In many animals, this lipid is involved in skin and fur maintenance. In humans, this lipid is produced by glands in the outer ear canal.

Functions of Proteins

important for metabolism, support, transport, defense, regulation and motion of cells.

Function of Metabolism Protein

In this protein function, enzymes bring reactants together and thereby speed chemical reactions in cells. They are specific for one particular type of a reaction and can function at body temperature.

Function of Support Protein

This protein has a structural function (i.e. - keratin makes up hair and nails, while collagen lends support to ligaments, tendons and skin).

Function of Transport Protein

Channel and carrier proteins in the plasma membrane allow substances to enter and exit cells. Some other proteins transport molecules in the blood of animals; hemoglobin is a complex protein that does this action with oxygen.

Function of Defense Protein

Antibodies are proteins. They combine with foreign substances called antigen. In this way, they prevent antigens from destroying cells and upsetting homeostasis. What is this proteins function?

Function of Regulation Protein

Hormones are this kind of protein that form this action. They serve as intercellular messengers that influence the metabolism of cells. The hormone insulin does this action with the content of glucose in the blood and in cells; the presence of growth hormone determines the height of an individual.

Function of Motion Protein

The contractile protein actin and myosin allow part of cells to do this action and causes muscles to contract. Muscle contraction accounts for the movement of animals from place to place. All cells contain proteins that allow cell components to do this action. Without such proteins, cells would not be able to function.

Proteins

These are polymers with amino acid monomers.

Polypeptide

This is a chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds. They contain 20 different kinds of amino acids

Peptide

2 or more amino acids bonded together

4 Structural Levels of Proteins

Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure make up the shape of these polymers with amino acid monomers.

Globular Protein

A tertiary structure (3 dimentional) shape of the polypeptide that tends to ball up into rounded shapes. These proteins are enzymes that work best at body temperature.

Denatured

When a protein loses its shape due to a high temperature and change in pH that can disrupt the interactions that maintain the shape of the enzyme, it is said to be this:

Carbohydrates

Includes both the monomer (e.g. - glucose) and the polymers (e.g. starch, glycogen and cellulose).

Glucose

The immediate energy source of cells

Fats and Oils

Contain one glycerol and (3) fatty acids. They allow long-term energy storage.

Prokaryotic Cell

Cell that lacks a membrane bound nucleus and are present in the air, bodies of water, in the soil and they also live in and on other organisms. They have (2) different domains: archaea and bacteria.

Eukaryotic Cell

Suggested by some scientists that the nucleus of this type of cell evolved as the result of the invagination of the plasma membrane from the first cells on earth. This is because this cell has a membrane bounded nucleus.

Endomembrane System

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the smooth ER, the golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles and enzymes make up this system in a cell.

Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus

Flattened saccules that work together to sort and package and modify lipids and proteins before being sent via a secretory vesicle for secretion outside the plasma membrane

Central Vacuole

This membranous sac may take up to 90% of the volume of the cell. It is filled with a watery fluid called cell sap that gives added support to the cell. A plant cell can quickly increase in size by enlarging this membranous sac. It maintains hydrostatic pressure or turgor pressure in plant cells.

Functions of the Cell Wall in Plants and bacteria

Outer surface that shapes, supports and protects cell. This structure is not in animal cells

Peroxisomes

Membrane-bounded vesicles that enclose enzymes. These vesicles also contain enzymes whose actions result in hydrogen peroxide. These vesicles are also metabolic assistants to other organelles. They are especially prevalent in cells that are synthesizing and breaking down lipids. Plants also have these vesicles.

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Both of these organelles are (2) eukaryotic membranous organelles that specialize in converting energy to a form that can be used by the cell.

Ribosome

This organelle is responsible for protein synthesis, is composed of rRNA

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