In his books, a poor person goes to the big city and, through a combination of hard work and luck, becomes succesful. His books convinced many young people that no matter how many obstacles they faced, success was possible.
British philosopher who applied Charles Darwin's theory of evolution to society. He explained that human society also evolved through competition and natural selection.
Title applied to the era in American history between 1870 & 1900. Everything appeared to sparkle but critics pointed to corruption, poverty, crimes, and the disparity in wealth between the rich and poor.
Carnegie and Rockefeller were called this because they paid low wages, did not tolerate strikes, and used every available means to put competitors out of pusiness.
Type of Union in which all workers united in a particular industry. They were opposed by business leaders.
An organization of workers with the same trade or skill. By 1873 there were 32 national trade unions in the United States. Among the largest and most successful were the iron Molders' International typographical Union and the Knights of St. Crispin.
Knights of Labor
First nationwide industrial union. Led by Terrance Powderly, this union supported arbitration, an 8-hour workday, equal pay for women, the abolition of child labor, and the creation of worker owned factories.
Haymarket Square Riot
May 4, 1886 three thousand people gathered in Chicago to protest the shooting of strikers at the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. As the meeting broke up, the police moved in to keep order. A bomb was tossed into the crowd killing one officer and injuring six others. One of the men arrested was a member of the Knights of Labor...this led to a steady decline in membership.
American Federation of Labor
Dominant union of the late 1800s. Focused on promotiong the interests of skilled workers. Union focused on three goals; 1. Convince companies to recognize unions & agree to collective bargaining 2. Pushed for closed shop 3. Promoted an eight hour workday.
Longest serving president of the American Federation of Labor. He avoided political ideas. He distrusted socialism avoided political ideas. He concentrated on improving working conditions. He believed that a just society was built on a fair labor policy.
Eugene V. Debs
Prominent labor leader and a member of the American Socialist Party. He helped to organize the American Railway Union. Arrested for his role in the Pullman strike. Ran for president five times for the American Socialist Party. His last campaign was run from prison because he was arrested for speaking against America's involvement in WWI.
Yellow Dog Contract
An agreement between the factory owner and worker in which the worker agreed not to join a labor union.
An agreement in which a company agrees to hire only union members.
Used by business leaders to discourage the formation of unions or prevent known union organizers or persons from working in factories. A list of organizations or persons that are disapproved, boycotted, or suspected of disloyalty.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Passed in 1890 this act prohibited any "combination ...or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states." Not effective at first because the courts were entrusted with enforcing the law.
The Great Strike, 1877
July of 1877 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroads cut rages for the 3rd time in 4 years. 80,000 workers walked off the job affecting 2/3 of the nation's railways. Gun battles erupted in several states between workers & state militias. President Hayes sent in federal troops to restore order.
Strike at a steel mill owned by Andrew Carnegie in Homestead, PA. Workers belonged to the largest craft union in the US. Company manager Henry Frick wanted to cut wages & arranged for Pinkerton Detectives to bring in replacement workers. Workers fought back and the governor ordered the militia to bring in the replacement workers.
Employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company went on strike to protest George Pullman's forcing his employees to live in a company town & buy goods from company stores. When the company slashed wages it made it difficult for the workers to pay their rent & high prices at the company stores. Strike ended when President Cleveland attached US Postal cars to Pullman cars.
Law requiring that some jobs be filled by competitive written examinations rather than through patronage.
A system where most government workers are given jobs based on their qualifications rather than on their political affiliations.
An informal political group designed to gain and keep power. Came about because cities had grown much faster than their governments. New city dwellers needed jobs, housing, food, heat, and police protection. In exchange for votes these necessities would be provided.
William "Boss" Tweed
Leader of the most famous political machine, Tammany Hall...located in New York City. His corruptness led to a prison sentence in 1874.
Democratic political machine located in New York City. Political machines often controlled all city services including police departments.
Famous political cartoonist who opposed political machines and blasted bosses for their corruption. His favorite target was William "Boss" Tweed.
The acquisition of money in dishonest ways, as in bribing a politician. Practice used by many political machines.
Reform minded Republicans who switched their loyalties to the Democrats over the Republican choice of James G. Blaine for president in 1884. Blaine was linked to several scandals.
The ability of voters to demand a special election to remove an elected official from office before his or her term had expired.
Allows citizens to vote on proposed laws directly without going to the legislature.
Permits a group of citizens to introduce legislation and requires legislatures to vote on legislation.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
Construction company set up by several stockholders of the Union Pacific RR. Acting on behalf of both companies, the stockholders signed contracts with themselves. The Union Pacific RR was overcharged but agreed to pay the bills because the stockholders controlled both companies. The stockholders avoided trouble when they sold members of Congress stock at reduced prices=$$$$
U.S V. E.C. Knight Co., 1895
The Federal government wanted to break up one company's control of sugar refining with the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Supreme Court ruled that the Federal government had NO right to break up the company's control of sugar refining. The sugar refinery was located within one state leaving it up to the state to regulate the company.
Alfred T. Mahan
In his book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783, he argued that a nation needed a large navy to protect its merchant ships and defend its right to trade with other nations thus prompting the US to build a large navy.
Popular American minister who linked Anglo-Saxonism with Christian missionary ideas. By linking missionary work with Anglo-Saxonism, he convinced many Americans to support expansion overseas.
"White Man's Burden"
The idea that the white man was responsible for civilizing those less civilized.
Idea by writer and historian John Fiske that English speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of government and were destined to rule the world.
Extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy. The Republicans in 1898 urged McKinley to go to war with Spain to prevent the Democrats from winning the elections in 1900.
His purchase of Alaska was jeered as a mistake. The Russians sold Alaska to the US for $ 7.2 million. Many Americans were preoccupied with Reconstruction, were economy minded, and anti-expansionist. His purchase turned into a gold mine of natural resources.
She disliked the influence that American settlers had gained in Hawaii. In 1893 she tried to impose a new constitution reasserting her authority. Planters with the help of the Marines overthrew the queen and forced her to step down.
Spanish American War
War fought between Spain and the United States. The war started as many Americans regarded the Spanish as tyrants and their treatment of the Cubans as barbaric. The US ordered Spain to withdraw from Cuba...they refused.
Commodore George Dewey
Commander of the American naval squadron based in Hong Kong. He was ordered to defeat the Spanish fleet located in Manila Bay preventing them from sailing east and attacking the United States. He was successful.
Scholar, adventurer, soldier, reformer, and politician. He embraced progressive ideas and objectives. As president he quickly enlarged the powers of the presidency. Unlike his predecessor he defended workers rights to organize.
First Volunteer Cavalry unit under the command of Colonel Leonard Wood and Col. Theodore Roosevelt. Famous for taking San Juan Hill and helping the US defeat the Spanish in Cuba.
William Randolph Hearst
Owner of the New York Journal newspaper...his paper reported outrageous stories that sensationalized or exaggerated (yellow journalism) incidents in Cuba that attracted readers and supporters of the Cuban fight for independence.
Owner of the New York World newspaper...his paper reported outrageous stories that sensationalized or exaggerated (yellow journalism) incidents in Cuba that attracted readers and supporters of the Cuban fight for independence.
Sent to Havana, Cuba, in case Americans had to be evacuated due to growing tensions between the US and Spain. The ship exploded on February 15, 1898...Spain was blamed and the US declared war.
This proviso proclaimed to the world that when the United States had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their independence.
Treaty Of Paris, 1898
December 10, 1898, Spain and the US sign this treaty ending the Spanish-American War. Cuba became an independent nation, the US acquired Guam and Puerto Rico, and the US paid $20 million for the Philippines.
Although Cuba was promised their independence, President McKinley took steps to ensure that Cuba remained tied to the US. The promise had four parts that ensured that the US would have say over Cuban affairs.
In the early 1900s the US negotiated a contract to build a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across Panama. The canal is 51 miles long. In each chamber 26 million gallons of water are pumped in or drained out in 7 minutes to raise or lower a ship.
After US interference in Mexico set up Venustiano Carranza as president...he hoped that his raids into New Mexico and Arizona would force the US to intervene and remove Carranza from power.
Clayton Antitrust Act
This act outlawed certain practices that restricted competition. It also banned price discrimination. Farm and labor organizations could no longer be considered illegal combinations in restraint of trade. The passing of this act corrected deficiencies in the Sherman Antitrust Act
A company tool to fight union demands by refusing to allow employees to enter its facilities to work.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His assassination by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian nationalist group the Black Hand, was the catalyst that started World War I.
German submarines used to run British blockades and sink merchant ships crossing the Atlantic.
Alliance of countries in World War I including Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
British passenger liner sunk by German U-boats. The ship was carrying 1,200 passengers, including 128 Americans. The attack angered Americans who saw the sinking as a terrorist attack on civilians not a legitimate act of war.
Intercepted by British intelligence, this message from Germany to the ambassador of Mexico stated that if Mexico helped Germany in war with the US, Germany would help Mexico regain lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, & Arizona.
Selective Service Act
Required all men between 21 and 30 to register for the draft. A lottery randomly determined the order in which they were called before a local draft board. Eventually 2.8 million American men were drafted.
First woman to hold a seat in the House of Representatives, from Montana. She was one of 56 members of Congress that voted against President Wilson's request for a Declaration of War against Germany in World War I.
"No Man's Land"
Although the Germans quickly invaded France they were stopped at the Battle of the Marne. This began a bloody stalemate along hundreds of miles of trenches. The land between the trenches was pocked marked by bombs and bodies.
In March 1917, riots broke out in Russia over the government's handling of the war. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne. An intern government was quickly overthrown by Vladimir Lenin of the Bolshevik Party. He established a Communist government in November 1917.
Nickname given to American soldiers by British and French troops. US troops were very young and had not seen the brutality of war.
American Expeditionary Force
American force led by General John J. Pershing. They arrived in Paris on July 4, 1917.
A truce or agreement to stop fighting; cease fire. At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month, 1918, the fighting stopped. (WWI)
Peace plan brought to the peace talks in Paris by president Woodrow Wilson. His plan was intended to bring about a lasting peace to Europe. The 14th Point of his plan would create the League of Nations that would help to promote and preserve peace.
League of Nations
Created by the 14th point of President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. This world body would help preserve peace by pledging to respect and protect each others territory and political independence.
Committee on Public Information
The job of this committee was to "sell" the war to the American people. Headed by George Creel the committee recruited advertising executives, artists, authors, song writers, and others to help sway public opinion in favor of the war...use of propaganda.
Perhaps the most successful agency set up during WWI. Run by Herbert Hoover this agency was responsible for increasing food production while reducing civilian consumption.
War Industries Board
Established in July 1917 to coordinate the production of war materials. Run by Bernard Baruch, the board told manufacturers what they could produce, allocated raw materials, ordered the construction of new factories, and when necessary set prices.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Act that made it illegal to aid the enemy, give false reports, or interfere with the war effort. Act that made it illegal to speak against the war publicly.
Schenck V. U.S., 1919
In the fall of 1917 Charles Schenck mailed pamphlets to draftees telling them that the draft was wrong. He was arrested and convicted of violating the Sedition Act. The Supreme Court upheld the conviction stating that the federal government could restrict speech when the words constitute a "clear and present danger". Freedom of speech can be curbed in times of war.
United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer established a special division within the Justice Department, the General Intelligence Division, Palmer ordered a series of raids on radial headquarters looking for communists, socialists, and fascists.
American diplomat Charles G. Dawes negotiated an agreement with France, Great Britain, & Germany by which American banks would make loans to Germany that would enable them to pay their reparation payments. In return Britain & France would accept less in reparations & pay back more on their war debt.
Washington Naval Conference
Called by President Warren G. Harding to reduce international military rivalry. The US and other nations agreed to reduce ship construction.
Alliance of countries in World War I including Great Britain, France, and Russia. These countries would would be joined by Italy in 1915 and the United States in 1917. They are often referred to as the Allied Powers.