Physiology of the Heart

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Practice exam questions, exam 2

The cardiovascular system is essentially a transport system. What does it transport besides blood?

substrates for energy production, immunocompetent cells, heat

The left ventricle is a part of the _______ circulation.

systemic

The fibers of the median layer of cardiac muscle run in which direction?

diagonally

What is true of diastole?

an increased heart rate shortens diastole more than systole

What causes the valves of the heart to open and close, allowing the blood to pass from chamber to chamber ?

changes in pressure between the chambers

What is isovolumetric contraction?

contraction of the ventricle with increased pressure, but without change in volume

What is enddiastolic volume

the maximum volume of the entire cycle

What is stroke volume?

difference between enddiastolic volume and endsystolic volume

What generates the initial action potential in a healthy heart?

SA node

The term inotropic refers to what type of effect?

change in force of contraction

What is the correct order of receipt of action potentials in the heart?

SA node, AV node, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

If the SA node fails, the AV node takes over heart rate determination. How do the rates of these two node compare?

AV node is slower

What is the purpose of the AV node on depolarization?

frequency filter

In regards to the heart, what does the parasympathetic nervous system not innervate?

left and right ventricles

What is the term for a change in speed of conduction?

dromotropic

The SA node is also known as what?

the pacemaker of the heart

Increased contractility results in what /

increased stroke volume

An electrocardiogram is a measure of what?

electrical events in the heart

When a lead is placed on each arm and the left leg, what is created?

Einthoven triangle

What is meant by Lead II?

the area between electrodes 1 and 3

What is the signal difference between the Goldberger method versus the Einthoven method?

Goldberger is stronger

How is the placement of electrode different in Wilson's method?

it uses electrodes on the chest

What does the QRS interval measure?

ventricular depolarization

What paper speed gives a better idea of random rhythmic events?

low speed

What is the major difference between a vectorcardiogram and an electrocardiogram?

vectorcardiogram shows all 3 leads, while ECG shows just one

What grades of heart murmurs are defined by the 'palpable thrill'?

5 and 6

How are murmurs generated?

turbulent blood flow

what is the main limitation of the vectorcardiogram?

cannot determine the duration of time when the heart is either completely repolarized or depolarized

What is a compensator pause?

time between ventricular extrasystole and supraventricular extrasystole

What is the major difference between fibrillation and flutter?

fibrillation is faster

What is a myocardial infarction?

blockage of the coronary arteries

What is the minimum cardia output?

minimum amount of blood the tissues need to maintain their metabolism

What are heart sounds?

sounds created by movement of blood and vibrations of the muscles and valves

What creates a machinery murmur?

combination of stenotic and insufficient valves; PDA

What is the largest loop in a vectorcardiogram?

R wave

What is a characteristic of a ventricular pacemaker?

no P waves

What is a nomotropic disturbance that is physiological (normal) in dogs?

sinus arrhythmia

What is a characteristic of 2nd degree AV block?

dropped beats

What can create the appearance of atrial fibrillation in a normal dog?

electrical interference

Moderate damage to the heart can cause what other actions by the body ?

kidneys to retain fluid

Maximum cardiac output is limited by what factor?

stroke volume and heart rate

Sinus bradycardia is an issue with what?

SA node establishing a rate that is too low

What can cause an interruption of signal between the AV node and the Bundle of His?

extreme vagal tone, infection, ischemia

A stenotic aortic valve would create a murmur during what event?

systole

What is a signal on an EKG of supraventricular extrasystole?

negative P wave

Ventricular extrasystole is characterized by what EKG event?

inverted T wave

What is a decrease or stoppage in the rate of conduction of the impulse through the AV node and Bundle of His?

AV block

How may heart failure manifest itself?

overloading the heart through increased cardiac output

What grade of heart murmur has a loud murmur without a palpable thrill?

4

On an ECG what event indicates the presence of a myocardial infarction?

deep Q wave

What event occurs during 3rd degree AV block?

atria and ventricles beat at different rates

What characterizes an incompetent murmur?

valvular insufficiency

Which is not a type of heart failure?

low pressure

What is a sign of a shifting pacemaker?

altered P wave or PQ segment

What happens after initial heart failure?

edema, overstretching of the heart muscle, ventricular dialation

When the right heart fails, edema or fluid buildup occurs where?

abdomen

Arterio-venous shunts and low resistance to blood flow cause what type of heart failure?

high output

How do ventricular septal defects cause heart failure?

thickening of the left ventricle

What type of vessels normally regulate blood flow?

arterioles

What is caused by a metabolic vitamin B deficiency?

loss of arteriolar tone

What happens in extreme cases of ventricular hypertrophy?

inability to eject enough blood

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