(total fertility rate) The number of births that 1,000 women would have if the current year's age-specific birth rate remained constant throughout their childbearing years
a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Arithmetic Population Density
the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area
Physiological Population Density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Shift in population growth shown by countries undergoing industrialization
High birth and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain
Followed by convergence of birth and death rates at a low overall level
Stationary Population Level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Child Mortality Rate (CMR)
a figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth year of their lives in a given population
Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human
Chronic or Degenerative Diseases
diseases in which tissues and organs that are affected will progressively deteriorate over time due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices
Ex: heart disease, cancers, stroke, diabetes
Genetic or Inherited Diseases
Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human
Ex: sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, or lactose intolerance
native or confined to a particular region or people; characteristic of or prevalent in a field
Expansive Population Policies
Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of poluation growth.
Ex: Aging populations in Europe are encouraged to have more children (i.e. Italy). Also, when Mao Zedong was ruler of China during the countrie's communist years, he encouraged the Chinese to have large families.
Eugenic Population Policy
Government policy designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others
accomplished through discriminatory taxation, allocation of resources, segregation.
Ex: NaziS, US before the civil rights movement, Japan
Restrictive Population Policies
Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
Ex: China's "one child" policy.
Money that migrants send home to family
Ex: in 2007, the Haitians sent home $1 billion in remittances
movement that has a closed route for short periods away from home
Ex: workers who commute to their job from Wheeling to Chicago
Migration involving temporary, recurrent relocation. Ex: military service, college, etc.
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move from one country or region to another
The range or spectrum of environmental conditions and habitat characteristics that support the normal activity of an organism; places we travel to routinely in our rounds of daily activity
a common type of periodic movement involving millions of worker in the US and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances
Ex: The women who went from Mexico to texas to sell cigarettes
the movement of animals between wet-season and dry-season pasture.
Ex: Life in the Sahel depends on a delicate balance of limited rain, drought-resistant plants, and a pattern of animal transhumance.
People removed from their countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, or government.
Ex: Atlantic Slave Trade, Jewish Diaspora
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move
Laws of Migration
CREATED BY ERNEST RAVENSTEIN:
1)Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration.
2)The majority of migrants move a short distance.
3)Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.
4)Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
5)Families are less likely to make international moves than you adults.
The model that holds the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attact people to new locations from other areas
Ex:pleasant climate, employment, education
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin. Typically, the farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact.
a migration in which an eventual long distance relocation is undertaken in stages as, for example, from farm to village to small town to city
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
Ex: Slaves who stopped in St. Louis and Cincinnati instead of going to Chicago
An official order telling someone to leave a country; expulsion
Ex: Illegal Immagrants being sent back to Mexico from the US
types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success
Ex: My family came to Georgia a year after we did, because we did well there
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Ex: My family moved from Illinois to Georgia. We settles in, then more family members come to Georgia to join us
increases in migration from one origin to the same destination
Ex: migration of Irish to Chicago in the 1850s because of the potato blight in Ireland
a person examining a region that is unknown to them
Ex: Amerigo Vespucci
when migrants go to a neighboring country to avail themselves of short-term economic opportunities, to reconnect with culture or to flee political conflict/war
Ex:Poles who go to Netherlands o work temporarily
Ex:Rwandan Tutsies going to Tanzania to refugee camps
legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term
Ex: after WWII, many soldiers had died, countries were short of workers, so guest workers were invited to take up jobs in places like France, Germany, UK, ended up staying because they wanted to and they were needed in the labor force
people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country.
Ex: Iraqis left because of war
Internally Displaced Persons
People who have been displaced within their own countries.
Ex: Victims of hurricane fled Florida
the right of protection in the first state in which refugees arrives
Ex: Palestinians in Jordan
A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds (i.e. criminal records, poor health, or subversive activities) are barred from immigrating