Classification

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42 terms

taxonomy

the science that specializes in naming and classifying organisms

a useful classification

gives each organism a unique name AND shows evolutionary relationships

ORDERS are grouped together into what?

families

the largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories is what?

kingdom

phylogeny

the study of evolutionary relationships amoung organisms

cladogram

diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships amoung a group of organisms

derived character

a unique trait that is used to construct a cladogram showing evolutionary relationships between organisms

what is the scientific name for humans?

Homo-sapiens

which two languages are used today when determining scientific names?

latin and greek

How are genes used to help scientists classify organisms?

DNA & RNA help determine the hereditary.

taxon

a group or level of organization into which organisms are classified

Aristotle

greek philosopher who first classified organisms as plants or animals

phylum

a group of closely related classes

eukarya

domain of all organisms whose cell walls have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi and animals

chitin

polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi

THERMophilies

organisms who like HOT environments

eukaryote

organism whose cells contain nuclei

HALOphile

organisms who like high SALT environments

anamilia

multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do NOT have CELL WALLS or chloroplasts

archaebacteria

"ANCIENT" unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do NOT contain peptidoglycan and are often found in harsh environments

eubacteria

unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are MADE of peptidoglycan

protista

composed of eukaryotes that are NOT classified as plants, animals, or fungi

fungi

composed of heterotrophs including mushrooms, and yeast

plantae

multicelluar autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose and chloroplasts

domain

most inclusive taxonomic category based on RNA which is larger than a kingdom

Genus

part of scientific name that is ALWAYS capitalized

class

group of similar orders

order

group of similar families

peptidoglycan

substance made of sugars and peptides that is found in eubacteria

the Three-Domain system divides organisms into groups based on similarities based on what?

ribosomal RNA

Which of the original five kingdoms was divided in two to make the Eubacteria and Archebacteria groups used today?

Monera

which domain includes organisms from more than one kingdom?

eukarya

Linnaeus

scientist that developed the system of classifying organisms by a genus and species name

what are the THREE domains?

archaea, bacteria, eukarya

what are the six kingdoms?

animalia, archaebacteria, eubacteria, fungi, plantae, protista

eukarya goes with?

protista, fungi, plantae, animalia

bacteria goes with?

euBACTERIA

archaea goes with?

ARCHEbacteria

how are protists and plants alike?

their cell walls are made of cellulose

how are archaebacteria and eubacteria different?

EUbacteria contain peptidoglycan and ARCHAEbacteria lack peptidoglycan

how do plants differ from animals?

plants: have cell wall, autotrophic, photosynthesis
animals: lack cell wall, heterotrophic, phagocytosis

convergent evolution

organisms that have similar traits but evolve independently

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