led to more people in manufacturing, demand for more factory workers, growth of cities, emigration from Europe to US to work in factories, more goods for consumers cheaper, improved standard of living, increased trade, crappy wages and hours, rise of labor unions, monopolies/trusts, reform movements
people moving from one country to another because of push factors (famine, overcrowding, persecution, unemployment, disease, war) and pull factors (opportunity, education, employment and wealth, land)
people moving to cities
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
one company controls whole industry for a product
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories.
the movement to increase farmers' political power and to work for legislation in their interest.
the movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
political bosses and reformers work together: register voters improve city services, public health programs, enforce tenement codes, overall bring major improvements
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
government rules, regulations, and standards directed at protecting competition in the marketplace
federal laws that try to prevent a monopoly from dominating an industry and restraining trade.
used by nations to gain control of weaker nations for various reasons: gain raw materials, have new markets, spread western civilization "white man's burden", convert people to Christianity, establish military power, increase power/influence of controlling nations
Wilson's 14 Points
Woodrow Wilson's plan for post-war peace: no secret treaties; freedom of the seas; removal of economic barriers; reduction of arms; adjust colonial claims; create League of Nations to prevent future conflict
a foreign policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
National Organization of Women, 1966, first president was Betty Friedan, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Jim Crow Laws
limited rights of blacks in the south; made segregation legal; used literacy tests and poll taxes to keep blacks from voting
people moving to suburbs; "white flight" is a good example
the development of skills in a specific kind of work.
a relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services
Federal Reserve System
the country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
Plessy vs Ferguson
separate but equal ruled okay
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.
US foreign policy to keep communism from spreading
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism
Soviet blockade of Berlin from the US during the Cold War; US responded with Berlin Airlift, "winning" the US the conflict
Cuban Missile Crisis
US found Soviet missiles in Cuba, began crisis. US put up blockade. To avoid war, Khrushchev and JFK negotiated Soviet removal of missiles and US staying out of Cuba
widespread fear of communists and communism in the US, started after the communist revolution in the US
African American Migrations
movements of African Americans from the south to the north. the Great Migration is the biggest and widest known
acts that limited numbers of immigrants allowed into the country when cities started getting overcrowded. Asians were most discriminated against.
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
called "roaring" because of the exuberant, freewheeling popular culture of the decade. The Roaring Twenties was a time when many people defied Prohibition, indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, and rejected many traditional moral standards.
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
period when huge dust storms ravaged the midwest due to overproduction of soil, severe drought, and high wind
the legislative and administrative program of President F. D. Roosevelt designed to promote economic recovery and social reform during the 1930s
accusing people of disloyalty and communism; started with Joseph McCarthy and his accusations of government workers being communists during his campaign for office
Brown vs Board of Education
overturned Plessy vs Ferguson. declared segregation in schools unconstitutional, as well as "separate but equal"
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
American Indian Movement; originally to protect Native Americans from police brutality, but then demanded restoration of lands, burial grounds, fishing/timber rights, and respect for culture
Urban vs Rural
urban: cities. big. people judge by looks, appearance, etc.
rural: farms, less developed, country. people judge by family history, name, etc.
granted women's suffrage
granted 18 year olds the right to vote
the right to vote
opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully disobeying it and accepting the resultant punishment
term applied to agencies of mass communication, such as newspapers, magazines, and telecommunications
led by a monarch who has complete power. title passed down by birth
a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law. title passed down by birth
leaders chosen by and responsible to legislature and members of legislature. leaders also members of legislature. usually prime minister and cabinet
separation of powers between individual and coequal executive and legislative branches
led by one or more religious leaders with divine authority
How can people change government?
political parties, interest groups, lobbyists, media, public opinion
Example of people's rights being restricted in the US
conscientious objectors of WWI, immigrants during Red Scare
Fundamental questions economic systems have to answer?
Goods and services to produce?
How to produce goods and services?
Who to produce goods and services for?
all decisions on production and consumption made by government
economic system where decisions on productions and consumption are made by consumers
economy based on rituals, customs, and habits. often agriculturally based
combination of traits from different kinds of economies
Major ideas of the Enlightenment?
Apply natural law, reason, rationality to government, religion, and economics
Challenge absolutism, divinity of kings
How did ideas of Enlightenment change relationships between people and government?
citizens should change/overthrow government if it didn't protect natural rights of citizens