A connective tissue that forms the bony skeleton. Bone consists of a few living cells encased in a hard extracellular matrix of mineral salts.
type of dense bone tissue found on the outer surfaces and shafts of bones.
type of bone tissue characterized by thin, hard interconnecting bony elements enclosing hollow spaces. Red blood cells are produced in the spaces between the bony elements
A mature bone cell that has become embedded within the bone matrix, occupying a small cavity and sends out protoplasmic projections that anastomose with those of other osteocytes to form a system of minute canals within the bone matrix.
A cylindrical structure in bone composed of layers of living bone cells and hard extracellular material, arranged like the layers of an onion. In the center is a central canal through which nerves and blood vessels pass.
In bone, the hollow central tube of an osteon that contains nerves and blood vessels.
Dense fibrous connective tissue that connective tissue that connects bone to bone.
white, semiopaque, flexible connective tissue
A cartilage-forming cell. In the fetus, chondroblasts produce the hyaline cartilage that forms the rudimentary models of future bones.
A bone forming cell
Cartilage plate located near the ends of bone. Bones become longer during childhood and adolescence because new cartilage is continually being added to the outer surface of the growth plate.
A cell that reabsorbs or breaks down bone
Progressive disorder involving increased softening and thinning of the bone, this results from an imbalance in the rates of bone resorption and bone formation
The body's physical support system. The skeleton consists of bones and the various connective tissues that hold them together.
The portion of the skeleton that forms the main axis of the body, consisting of the skull, ribs, sternum, and backbone.
Mucous-membrane-lined, air-filled cavity in certain cranial bones.
A disk of fibrocartilage between vertebrae.
one of the 12 paired arches of bone which form the skeletal structure of the chest wall (rib cage). the ribs attach to the building blocks of the spine (vertabrae) in the back. The 12 pairs of ribs consist of:
True ribs- the first seven ribs attach to the sternum (the breast bone) in the front and are known as true ribs (or sternal ribs)
False ribs- the lower five ribs do not directly connect to the sternum and are known as false ribs.
The upper three false ribs connect to the costal cartilages of the ribs just above them. The last two false ribs, however, usually have no ventral attachment (no anchor at all in front) and are called floating, fluctuating or vertebral ribs.
A long flat bone, articulating with the cartilages of the first seven ribs with the clavicle, forming the middle part of the anterior wall of the thorax, and consisting of the corpus, manubrium and xiphoid process (also called breastbone)
The portion of the skeleton that forms the pectoral girdles and the four extremities
Portion of the skeleton that attaches the upper limbs to the axial skeleton, composed of the clavicle and scapula.
a long curved, horizontal bone directly above the first rib, forming the ventral portion of the shoulder girdle. It articulates medially with the sternum and laterally with the acromion of the scapula and accommodates the attachment of numerous muscles. It is shorter, thinner, less curved, and smoother in the female than in the male and is thicker, more curved, and more prominently ridged for muscle attachment in persons performing consistent strenuous manual labor. Also called collarbone.
one of the pair of large flat triangular bones that forms the dorsal part of the shoulder girdle. It has two surfaces, three borders, three angles, and a prominent dorsal spine. The acromion of the scapula forms the summit of the shoulder. The coracoid process, resembling a raven's beak, accommodates the attachment of various muscles, including the pectoralis minor, and ligaments, including the trapezoid. Also called shoulder blade.
The bone of the upper arm.
The bone extending from the elbow to the wrist on the side opposite to the thumb
the bone on the outer or thumb side of the forearm, articulating proximally with the humerus and ulna and distally with the ulna and carpus.
The two large bones that connect the femur hones to the sacrum of the vertebral column. The coal bones form our hips`
Portion of the skeleton that supports the weight of the upper body and attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton, composed of the two coxal bones and the the sacrum and coccyx of the vertebral column.
The junction or area of contact between two or more bones, also called articulation
(aka thighbone) the bone that extends from the pelvis to the knee, being the longest and largest bone in the body; its head articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone, and distally, the femur, along with the patella and tibia, forms the knee joint
shin bone; the inner and larger bone of the leg below the knee. It articulates with the femur and head of the fibula above and with the talus below.
one of the two bones of the lower leg, lateral to and smaller in diameter than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones and presents three borders and three surfaces for attaching various muscles, including the peronei longus and brevis and the soleus longus. Also called calf bone.
A movable joint having a thin fluid filled cavity between the bones.
A cord of dense bone fibrous connective tissue attaching muscle to bone.
Most of the mass of a bone consists of extracellular minerals in the matrix; living osteocytes, blood vessels, and nerves are also part of its structure.
Which of the following bones is not part of the appendicular skeleton?
4, 1, 3, 2, 5
Arrange in the proper sequence the following events that occur in the ossification of a long bone.
1. Chondroblasts die and the surrounding matrix breaks down.
2. Osteoblasts secrete osteoid.
3. Blood vessels transport osteoblasts into the area to be ossified.
4. Chondroblasts create a model of long bones from cartilage.
5. Osteoblasts become osteocytes.
A young man is brought to an emergency room; his diagnosis is a broken cheek bone. Which of the following bones has been affected?
Late in puberty, the sex hormones signal the growth plate of a bone to stop growing; once this happens, the bone cannot get longer, but it can grow in width
Which is NOT a function of bone?
Which is composed of osteons?
in the spaces of spongy bone, it makes blood cells
Where do you find red bone marrow and what does it do?
Which bone cell resorb bone to increase calcium?
to increase blood calcium
Why do the osteoclasts of persons with osteoporosis resorb their bone?
the incomplete fusion of ____ in babies makes their skulls more flexible for birth