What 2 general things lead to the gaining popularity of absolute power?
1) Decline of papal power 2) the climb of political power.
Which country led the way with absolute power?
Where did absolute rulers believe their power came from?
Henry IV wanted to be portrayed as what?
Hercules defeating the monster.
What did the monster represent?
The Catholic Church.
What did the Edict of Nantes (sounds like knots) accomplish?
Provided religious tolerance and cities of refuge for the huguenots.
What does the word "huguenots" refer to?
What was Henry the IV's major goal in his rule?
To protect the huguenots.
Describe Henry IV's personality.
Personable, outgoing, like a modern politician who got what he wanted from people because of his charisma.
True or False: Louis XIII had a weak constitution.
True or False: Louis XIII was excited about being King, especially about fulfilling all of his responsibilities.
What age did Louis XIII become King at?
Which family whas Louis XIII's mother from?
The Medici family.
Why did Louis XIII not like his mother?
She was overbearing and tried to bring in a lot of Italian Influence.
What did Louis XIII do to his mother in the end?
He exiled her.
Who put Cardinal Richelieu in power?
What office did Cardinal Richelieu fulfill?
What was Cardinal Richelieu's major concern?
France's unity as a nation. Nothing else mattered, not even religion.
Which 2 people groups were in the way of Cardinal Richelieu's goal of a unified France?
1) Nobility, because they didn't want to lose their power to give power to the monarch. 2) Huguenots, because they viewed royal authority and catholicism negatively.
What does Cardinal Richelieu do to try and get rid of the huguenots?
Started taking away portions of the Edict of Nantes (cities of refuge).
What does Cardinal Richelieu do to try and limit the Nobility?
He gave them lots of busy work that seemed important and put new intendants in charge who were commoners. This created loyalty to the king.
What happens when Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu die?
It creates a power vacuum.
How old was Louis the XIVth when he became king?
Who was the next cardinal after Richelieu?
Which King was put under house arrest?
How did being put under house arrest affect Louis XIV?
He looks for every way to humiliate the nobility, and feels like he is untouchable as king.
What caused the Fronde?
The nobility tried to exile Mazarin and placed Louis XIV and his mother under house arrest.
What was the Fronde?
The civil war in France that occurred because of the nobility trying to take control.
What did the establishment of the Bureaucracy accomplish?
It moved more of the power from the nobility to the common people.
What did Mazarin do with the Nobles to take more power away from them without them knowing it?
He gave them lots of jobs that made them feel important, but actually weren't. He gave them lots of meaningless titles. He built the palace of Versallies and brought them there so that he could keep an eye on them and make them feel important.
True or False: Louis XIV was able to mostly eliminate the power of the Nobility.
What was one of the titles that Louis XIV called himself?
The sun king.
True/False: Louis XIV said, "One King. One Law. One Faith."
True or False: Louis XIV loved the huguenots.
True or False: Louis XIV's mistreatment of the huguenots was beneficial for France.
False. This hurt France because it caused them to go elsewhere, stripping France of many of its middle/working class.
What was Prussia's focus in their absolute style government?
What was Prussia's focus in their absolute style government?
True or False: England loved Queen Elizabeth.
James I of England a.k.a. James ___ of what country?
James VI of Scotland.
What style of government did James I desire?
What words would best describe James I?
Awkward. Paranoid. Belligerent.
How did James I view parliament?
An endless bank of money.
Who authorized the King James Version of the bible?
King James I of England.
True or False: Charles I seemed like he lived an absolutist lifestyle out of duty.
What religion did Charles I follow?
Which monarch pushed parliament so far that they drew up a petition of rights and made him sign it?
Which monarch told parliament to leave, but they refused him and then he didn't call on them for 11 years? (bad grammar, I know)
Why did Charles I call parliament after 11 years?
He needed money.
What 2 options did Charles I give the nobility when he asked for money from them during the 11 years where he didn't call on parliament?
1) Give the money and never see it again 2) Go to jail.
What doe Charles I do to anger the Scottish?
He tries to force Anglican beliefs on them.
True or False: Charles I beat Scotland when they fought him out of anger due to his trying to force Anglicanism on them.
False. The Scottish beat him 3 times...
What desperate measure does Charles I take to try and get money from parliament?
He tries to arrest them. They in-turn threaten him and he flees to Northumbria.
What were the names of the two sides in the English Civil War?
Roundheads - Support parliament, and Cavaliers - Support King.
Who was the leader of the Roundheads?
True or False: Oliver Cromwell's army captured King Charles I.
True or False: Cromwell did not want to kill Charles I.
False. He definitely wanted to kill Charles I.
What did Cromwell do when parliament refused to put Charles I on trial?
He weeds out parliament until he reduced it to a rump parliament.
True or False: Charles I defended himself well at his trial.
False. He refused to answer any accusations against him because he didn't think that the people would actually carry through the execution.
What did Cromwell accomplish by executing Charles I?
Nothing. He basically opposed absolutism with absolutism.
What title does Cromwell give himself?
What was Cromwell's religion?
Does the English Civil War produce change?
Yes, but Cromwell finds that he can't control it.
True or False: Cromwell's son, Richard was a better leader than his father.
False. He was weaker, and the army got rid of him and brought back the rump parliament.
What were the priorities of the rump parliament after getting rid of Richard Cromwell?
1) Find a leader 2) Make sure there's no possibility of a dictatorship 3) Reduce the power of the army.
What leader does parliament find?
Charles II. Important: Parliament CALLED the king, the kind didn't call parliament.
What was Charles II known as?
The merry monarch.