The only neurotransmitter of the Parasympathetic Nervous System.
A compulsive disorder that leads to continued use of a drug despite harm to the user.
Division of the peripheral nervous system consisting of the nerves & sense organs that bring information to the Central Nervous System.
Compound containing a -carboxycyclic acid w/ the OH group replaced by a nitrogen- (-CONH- group); a longer acting local aneshtetic that is metabolized by liver enzymes.
Drug that alleviates pain.
mu, delta, & kappa
List the primary opiod receptors associated w/ Analgesia.
Guidline for selecting pain-releiving dedications according to the severity of the pain & whether lower level agents have been able to control the pain.
Physician who overses administration of anesthesia kduring surgery.
Drugs used to reverse the effects of other drugs, such as in treatment of benzodiazepine or narcotic overdoses.
Drug that increases the action of acetylcholine (ACh) by inhibiting the enzyme, (acetylcholinesterase), which breaks acetylcholine down. These are effective in reversing the effects of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
Subjectiv esensation or motor phenomenon tha tprecedes & marks the onset of a migraine headache.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Part of the efferent system of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that regulates activities of body structures not under voluntary control. It is further divided into 2 major components: The Sympathetic Nervous System & The Parasympathetic Nervous System.
Class of drugs most used as preoperative sedatives. They are desirable in this use for their tendency to cause amnesia as well as their anxiety relieving and anticonvulsant properties.
Nerve receptors on the heart that control the rate & strength of the heartbeat in response to epinephrine.
Nerve Receptors that control vasodilation & relaxation of the smooth muscle of the airways in response to epinephrine.
Drug used for the management of moderate to severe pain & to treat opiate addiction thru prevention of opiod w/drawal. It attaches to opiod receptors & acts both as agonist & antagonist. It is dosed in tablet form to be placed under the tongue until dissolved.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain & Spinal Cord.
Acetylcholine (ACh), Dopamine, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), Glutamate, Norepinephrine, & Serotonin
List the primary neurotransmitters of the CNS.
Drug used in IV form as a treatment for Malignant Hyperthermia that is also a skeletal muscle relaxant used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, cerebral palsy, & spinal cord injury.
Physical & emotional reliance on a drug.
Division of the peripheral nervous system consisting of the nerves that dispatch information out from the central nervous system (CNS).
Insertion of a tube into the trachea to keep it open.
Inhaled anesthetic w/ the advantage of rapid induction & recovery. A short-acting barbiturate is usually infused 1st to render the patient unconscious. Disadvantages include excessive depression of respiratory & circulatory systems, stimulation of seizures in high concentrations, & possible malignant hyperthermia. It also causes uterine krelaxation, which prohibits use diring childbirth.
Organic compound made by chemically combining an alcohol w/ an organic acid -contains a -COO- group-; a short-acting local anesthetic, metabolized by psuedocholinesterase of the plasma & tissue fluids.
Condition characterized by reversible unconsciousness, analgesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, & amnesia on recovery.
Production of transient & reversible loss of sensation in a defined area of the body.
Rare, but serious side effect of anesthesia associated w/ and increase in intracellular calcium & a rabid rise in body termperature.
dantrolene, furosemide, glucose, procainamide, sodium bicarbonate 7.5%, & sterile water
List components of a Malignant Hyperthermia Kit.
Severe, throbbing, unilateral headache, usually accompanied by nausea & abnormal sensitivity to light, sound, & touch.
chlorpromazine (Thorazine), metoclopramide (Reglan), & prochlorperazine (Compazine)
List antimetic agents used in treatment for Migraine Headaches.
Anticonvulsants, Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, Estrogen (tho can also be causative factor), Feverfew (herb frequently used but w/o scientific data to support use), NSAIDs, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), & Tricyclic Antidepressants
List classes of drugs used as Prophylactic therapy for migraine headaches.
Antagonist drug that partially or completely reverses the effects of narcotics/opiates, including respiratory depression.
Pain medication containing an opioid.
Skeletal muscle paralysis.
Nerve cell - transmits information.
Chemical substance that is selectively released from a neuron & stiulates or inhibits activity in the neuron's target cell.
Cardiac Muscle, Exocrine glands, & Smooth Muscle
Neurotransmitter Actions: Acetylcholine (ACh)
CNS & Kidneys
Neurotransmitter Actions: Dopamine.
Cardiac & Bronchodilator Adrenergic Receptors
Neurotransmitter Actions: Epinephrine/Adrenaline (the fight-or-flight chemical).
GABA receptors & present in many nerve endings in the brain
Neurotransmitter Actions: Gama-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA).
Learning & Memory
Neurotransmitter Actions: Glutamate
Alpha & Beta receptors
Neurotransmitter Actions: Norepinephrine/Noradrenaline.
Smooth Muscle & Gastric Mucosa
Neurotransmitter Actions: Serotonin
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)
Drug such as aspirin or ibuprofen that reduces pain & inflammation.
Narcotic that is either derived from opium or synthetically produced to resemble opium derivitives chemically.
Substance, durg or a chemical naturally produced by the body, that acts on opioid receptors to reduce the sensation of pain.
Activation of electrical activity in afferent neurons w/ sensory endings in peripheral tissue w/ a higher threshhold than those of temperature or tough; a protectiv esignal to warn of damage or the presence of disease, the 5th vital sign; classified as acute, chronic, nonmalignant, & chronic malignant.
Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA)
Means of pain control whereby the patient can regulate, w/i certain limits, the administration fo pain medication.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Nerves & sense organs outside the central nervous system (CNS). It has 2 divisions: Afferent System (Nerves & sense organs that bring information to the CNS), & Efferent System (Nerves & sense organs that dispatch information out from the CNS).
Somatic Nervous System
Part of the efferent ssytem of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that regulates the skeletal muscles.
Sympathetically Mediated Pain
Pain that occurs when no pain should be felt - This occurs from oversensitivity to a pain stimulus, and can be caused by nerve damage as a result of trauma to a specific area.
Drug used in the treatment of Migrain Headaches that is highly successful when given in combination w/ an NSAID such as ibuprofen. Due to its slow onset, this drug was thought to be nonaddictive; however recent evidence suggests that there is some potential for addiction.
Class of Selective Serotonin Receptor Agonist agents specifically designed to treat migaine headaches. They offer good efficacy & rapid onset of action & are available in various dosage forms. All of the generic names for them end in -triptan.
Theory that proposes that migraine headaches are caused by vasodilation & the concomitant mechanical stimulation of sensory nerve endings.