exam #3

Created by collins42411 

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What would be expected if the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of the lungs were to increase significantly?
a. The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would increase.
b. The amount of carbon dioxide entering the lungs from the blood would increase.
c. The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would decrease.
d. The pressure would cause the capillary beds to burst.

c. The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would decrease.

Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have which of the following?
a. hemolymph
b. an open circulatory system
c. branched tracheae
d a gastrovascular cavity
e. a closed circulatory system

e. a close circulatory system

In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?
a. frog
b. mollusc
c. insect
d. annelid
e. fish

a frog

Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?
a. birds
b. fishes
c. reptiles
d. mammals
e. amphibians

b. fishes

To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n)
a open circulatory system.
b hemocoel.
c four-chambered heart.
d two-chambered heart.
e. lymphatic system.

c. four-chambered heart

Diffusion rate is proportional to the square of the distance molecules/ions travel. Which of the following would therefore be preferable for a mid-size multicellular organism?
a. direct exchange of nutrients with the surrounding medium
b. a system for facilitated diffusion to maximize materials that could be exchanged
c. a system of individualized exchange tubules for each cell group
d. a system for bringing nutrients into contact with cells, and another system for bringing O2 to cells
e. a system to circulate gases, nutrients, and wastes to and from cells

e. a system of circulate gases, nutrients, and wastes to and form cells

An anthropologist discovers fossilized animal remains that give strong evidence that the organism had a large, well-formed, most likely 4-chambered heart, with no connection between the right and left sides. Which of the following could most reasonably be hypothesized from this observation?
a. that the animal was most closely related to reptiles such as alligators and crocodiles
b. that the animal was a kind of invertebrate
c. that the animal and its relatives had evolved from birds
d. that the species had little to no need to regulate blood pressure
e. that the animal had a high energy requirement and was endothermic

e. that the animal had a high energy requirement and was endothermic

Which of the following would be described as a portal system?
a. a space within or between organs where blood is allowed to pool
b. a slightly muscular vessel that has minimal pumping action in an organism with no heart
c. a series of vessels that returns blood to the heart in an animal with an open circulatory system
d. an area connecting arterioles to venules
e. a vessel or vessels connecting two capillary beds

e. a vessel or vessels connecting two capillary beds

Which sequence of blood flow can be observed in either a reptile or a mammal?

vena cava, right atrium, ventricle, pulmonary circuit

A patient has a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/min, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min. This person's cardiac output per minute will be

2800mL

Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans
a would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions.
b would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance.
c would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers.
d is a major contributor to heart attacks.
e would have a direct effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta.

a would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions

If the atrioventricular node could be surgically removed from the heart without disrupting signal transmission to the Purkinje fibers, what would be the effect?
a The heart rate would be decreased.
b Only the atria would contract.
c Atria and ventricles would contract at about the same time.
d Only the ventricles would contract.
e No apparent effect on heart activity would be observed.

c atria and ventricles would contract at about the same time

A nonfunctional sinoatrial node would
a result in a block in ventricular contractions.
b have little significant effect on stroke volume.
c cause the heart to stop beating in an autorhythmic fashion.
d have no adverse effects on heart contraction.
e cause no effects because hormones will take over regulation of the heartbeat.

b have little significant effect on stroke volume

Which of the following is measured by an electrocardiogram?

the spread of impulses from the SA node

The average resting stroke volume of the heart is 70 mL and it beats ~72 times per minute. This would result in which cardiac output?
500 L/minute
0.5 L/minute
504 mL/minute
5 L/minute
50 L/minute

5 L/minute

Where are semilunar valves to be found in the mammalian heart?
a where blood goes from atria to ventricles
b on the right side of the heart only
c at the places where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary arteries
d where the pulmonary veins attach to the heart
e at the places where the anterior and posterior venae cavae enter

c at the places where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary arteries

Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure(s)?
venae cavae
arterioles
the aorta
arteries
capillaries

Venae Cavae

Which of the following is correct for a blood pressure reading of 130/80?
I. The systolic pressure is 130.
II. The diastolic pressure is 80.
III. The blood pressure during heart contraction is 80.
I and II only
III only
I, II, and III
II and III only
I only

1 and 11 only

What is the reason that fluid is forced from the bloodstream to the surrounding tissues at the arteriole end of systemic capillaries?
a The osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid.
b The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid.
c The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood.
d The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood.
e The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood.

e the hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood

If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then
a) fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues.
b) the pH of the interstitial fluids will increase.
c) most carbon dioxide will be bound to hemoglobin and carried away from tissues.
d) hemoglobin will not release oxygen.
E) plasma proteins will escape through the endothelium of the capillaries.

a) fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues

What would be the long-term effect if the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed were to become blocked?
a) Fewer proteins would leak into the interstitial fluid from the blood.
b) More fluid would enter the venous capillaries.
D) Fluid would accumulate in interstitial areas.
e) Nothing would happen.
Blood pressure in the capillary bed would increase.

D fluid would accumulate in interstitial areas

A species has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of >260 mm Hg. What is the most probable hypothesis?
a) The animal is small and does not need the blood pumped far.
b) The species is characterized by frequent, quick motions.
c) The species has very wide diameter veins.
d) The animal is obese.
e) The animal has a very long distance between heart and brain.
Correct

e) the animal has a very long distance between heart and brain

Large proteins such as albumin remain in capillaries rather than diffusing out. Which of the following does this cause?
a) loss of fluid from capillaries
b) increased diffusion of CO2
c) loss of osmotic pressure in the capillaries
d) creation of an osmotic pressure difference across capillary walls
e) increased diffusion of Hb

d creation of an osmotic pressure difference across capillary walls

A blood vessel has the following characteristics: outer layer of connective tissue, a thick layer of smooth muscle with elastic fibers, no valves. It is which of the following?
a a portal vessel
b a venule
c an artery
d a vein
e a capillary

c an artery

Which of the following is used to diagnose hypertension in adults?
a measurement of fatty deposits on the endothelium of arteries
b number of leukocytes per mm3 of blood
c measurement of the LDL/HDL ratio in peripheral blood
d blood pressure of >140 mm Hg systolic and/or >90 diastolic
e percent of blood volume made up of platelets

d blood pressure of >140 mm Hg systolic and/or >90 diastolic

Human plasma proteins include which of the following?
I. fibrinogen
II. hemoglobin
III. immunoglobulin
a II and III only
b I and III only
c I only
d I, II, and III
e II only

b 1 and 111 only

Which of the following is a function of plasma proteins in humans?
a) aerobic metabolism
b) transport of water-soluble lipids
c) maintenance of blood osmotic pressure
d) oxygen transport
e) gas exchange

c maintenance of blood osmotic pressure

Cyanide acts as a mitochondrial poison by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. What will happen to human red blood cells if they are placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide?
a) As a protective mechanism, the cells will switch to anaerobic metabolism.
b) The cells will probably be unaffected.
c) The cells will lyse as the cyanide concentration increases inside the cell.
d) The cell shape will be maintained, but the mitochondria will be poisoned.
e) The cells will not be able to carry oxygen.

b) The cells will probably be unaffected.

Which of these stimulate the production of red blood cells?
platelets
low-density lipoproteins
erythropoietin
epinephrine
immunoglobulins

erythropoietin

Which of these are involved in the early stages of blood clotting?
erythropoietin
epinephrine
immunoglobulins
platelets
low-density lipoproteins

platelets

The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein?
prothrombin
fibrin
collagen
fibrinogen
thrombin

fibrin

Which of the following is a normal event in the process of blood clotting?
production of erythropoietin
clotting factor formation
increase in platelets
conversion of fibrin to fibrinogen
activation of prothrombin to thrombin

activation of prothrombin to thrombin

Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common?
a They are maintained at a constant temperature.
b) They are enclosed within ribs.
c) The exchange surfaces are moist.
d) They are exposed to air.
e) They are found only in animals

c the exchange surfaces are moist

Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs?
a) Gills allow water to flow in one direction
b) Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume.
c) Gills allow only unidirectional transport
d) Gills have less surface area than lungs.
e) Water is less dense than air.

b water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume

Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange?
a) the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills
b) the flow of water across the skin of a frog and that of blood within the ventricle of its heart
c) the flow of fluid out of the arterial end of a capillary and that of fluid back into the venous end of the same capillary
d) the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of an insect and that of air within its tracheae
e) the flow of air within the primary bronchi of a human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins

a) the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills

Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize which of the following?

diffusion

Where do air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange?

across the membranes of cells

An oil-water mixture is used as a spray against mosquitoes. How might this spray also affect gas exchange in other insects?

the oil might block the openings into the tracheal system

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mm Hg.
Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume.


What is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2)?

160mm Hg

A group of students was designing an experiment to test the effect of smoking on grass frogs. They hypothesized that to keep the frogs in a smoke-filled environment for defined periods would result in lung cancer in the animals. However, when they searched for previously published information to shore up their hypothesis, they discovered they were quite wrong in their original assessment. Even though they were never going to go ahead with their experiment (so as not to harm frogs needlessly) they knew that a more likely outcome would be which of the following?
a) skin cancer
b) gill abnormalities in the next generation of tadpoles
c) diminished absorption of oxygen
d) tracheal tube abnormalities
e) the amphibian equivalent of hypertension

a skin cancer

Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure. This most probably relates to which of the following?
a) the incomplete development of the lung surface
b) mutations in the genes involved in lung formation
c) inadequate production of surfactant
d) the overproduction of surfactants
e) the sudden change from the uterine environment to the air

c inadequate production of surfactant

Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
a) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.
b) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs.
c) gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure.
d) a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes.
e) pressure in the alveoli increases.

a) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.

Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs?
a) The epiglottis closes.
b) The diaphragm contracts.
c) The residual volume of the lungs decreases.
d) The rib cage expands.
e) The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases

e) The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases

Which of the following lung volumes would be different in a person at rest compared with when the person exercises?
a) residual volume
b) vital capacity
c) total lung capacity
d) tidal volume
e) All of the above would be different.

d tidal volume

Tidal volume in respiration is analogous to what measurement in cardiac physiology?
diastolic pressure
heart rate
stroke volume
systolic pressure
cardiac output

stroke volume

A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of
1,450 mL.
5,450 mL.
4,000 mL.
5,000 mL.
4,450 mL.

5000mL

Why is the respiratory system of a bird more efficient than the human respiratory system?
a) The human respiratory system ends in small parabronchi, which reduce the amount of surface area available for gas exchange.
b) A bird lung contains multiple alveoli, which increases the amount of surface area available for gas exchange.
c) The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air.
d) A bird lung contains multiple alveoli, which increases the amount of surface area available for gas exchange, and the human respiratory system ends in small parabronchi, which reduce the amount of surface area available for gas exchange.
e) The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air, a bird lung contains multiple alveoli, which increases the amount of surface area available for gas exchange, and the human respiratory system ends in small parabronchi, which reduce the amount of surface area available for gas exchange.

c) The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air.

Breathing is usually regulated by

CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level sensors.

The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?
nitrogen
carbon monoxide
carbon dioxide
nitric acid
oxygen

carbon dioxide

At an atmospheric pressure of 870 mm Hg, what is the contribution of oxygen?
127 mm Hg
219 mm Hg
182 mm Hg
151 mm Hg
100 mm Hg

182mm Hg

At the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is 380 mm Hg. If the atmosphere is still composed of 21% oxygen, what is the partial pressure of oxygen at this altitude?
0 mm Hg
80 mm Hg
380 mm Hg
160 mm Hg
760 mm Hg

80mm Hg

For this capillary bed, which of the following statements is correct?
a) The hydrostatic pressure declines from the arterial side to the venous side because oxygen is lost.
b) The osmotic pressure remains constant due to carbon dioxide compensation.
c) Fluids will leave the capillaries on the arterial side of the bed and re-enter on the venous side.
d) The pH is lower on the arterial side than on the venous side.
e) Oxygen is taken up by the erythrocytes within the capillaries.

c) Fluids will leave the capillaries on the arterial side of the bed and re-enter on the venous side.

Blood carbon dioxide levels determine the pH of other body fluids as well as blood, including the pH of cerebrospinal fluid. How does this enable the organism to control breathing?
a) The medulla, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.
b) The medulla is able to control the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood.
c) Stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla to speed up or slow breathing.
d) The brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide.
e) The brain directly measures and monitors carbon dioxide and causes breathing changes accordingly.

a) The medulla, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.

Which of the following is a characteristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin?
occurs in mammals
found within blood cells
red in color
transports oxygen
contains the element iron as an oxygen-binding component

transport oxygen

The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in

pH

How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans?

bicarbonate ions in the plasma

Hydrogen ions produced in human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering pH by combining with

hemoglobin

In an animal species known for endurance running rather than fast sprinting, which of the following would you expect?
a) a much higher rate of oxygen consumption for its size
b) an increase of storage of oxygen in myoglobin of its muscles
c) a relatively slow heart rate in order to lower oxygen consumption
d) a lower pressure of oxygen in the alveoli
e) a slower rate of oxygen consumption so that its breathing will not have to be accelerated
Correct

a a much higher rate of oxygen consumption for its size

Emphysema is a disease, frequently caused by smoking, that results in loss of the elastic elements of lung tissue. The effect will be more like which of the following?
a) pulmonary edema in which the alveoli amass fluid
b) bronchiolar constriction as in asthma
c) cystic fibrosis in which mucus builds up in the lungs
d) an increase in airway resistance
e) a decrease in airway resistance

d) an increase in airway resistance

Dialysis patients, who will have blood withdrawn, dialyzed, then replaced, are always weighed when they enter the facility and then weighed carefully again before they leave. What is the most likely explanation for this requirement?
a) Reclining posture during dialysis can cause a tendency for weight gain.
b) Many people who have dialysis are diabetic and must control their weight carefully.
c) Dialysis removes blood proteins and these weigh more than other blood components.
d) Dialysis is likely to cause edema and such swelling must be controlled.
e) Even small changes in body weight may signify changes in blood volume and therefore blood pressure.

e) Even small changes in body weight may signify changes in blood volume and therefore blood pressure.

Which of these speed up heart rate?
a) epinephrine
b) low-density lipoproteins
c) platelets
d) immunoglobulins
e) erythropoietin

a) epinephrine

A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. From this point in the artery, how many capillary beds must this red blood cell pass through before it returns to the left ventricle of the heart?

two

Which of the following is/are a cause(s) of vasoconstriction?
histamine secretion
standing after lying down
increased blood pressure
lying down after standing
stress or hormone concentration

stress or hormone concentration

Which of the following is predicted in someone who smokes and whose diet includes significant trans fats?
a) increased HDL levels
b) reduced deposition of cholesterol in blood vessels
c) decreased LDL levels
d) increased blood vessel inflammation
e) decreased amounts of C-reactive protein secreted by the liver
Correct

d) increased blood vessel inflammation

Birds have negative pressure breathing, but it differs from that of mammals and is more efficient because of which of the following reasons?
a) The flow of air in a bird's lungs is from posterior to anterior.
b) The tidal volume in birds is much larger than in a comparably sized mammal.
c) The brain of the bird maximizes oxygen uptake more efficiently.
d) The maximum PO2 is significantly higher in bird lungs.
e) The bird's mouth movements are able to force air into the lungs.

d) The maximum PO2 is significantly higher in bird lungs.

How does the hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals?
a) Hemocyanin carries appreciably more carbon dioxide.
b) The oxygen dissociation curve for hemocyanin is linear.
c) The protein of hemocyanin is not bound to metal.
d) Hemocyanin includes cyanic acid.
E Hemocyanin has protein coupled to cooper rather than iron

E Hemocyanin has protein coupled to cooper rather than iron

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mm Hg.
Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume.
If the partial pressure of CO2 at sea level is approximately 0.23 mm Hg, how does this influence gas exchange in terrestrial animals?
a) since the concentration of oxygen is lower in water, the moist surface of the lung extracts less carbon dioxide
b) the higher pressure of oxygen causes the lung surface to extract oxygen and give up carbon dioxide
c) the lower pressure of oxygen causes the lung surface to extract oxygen and give up carbon dioxide
d) the low concentration of carbon dioxide causes the oxygen to move across the lung surface
e) the low concentration of carbon dioxide causes the carbon dioxide to exert pressure on the inner lung surface

b) the higher pressure of oxygen causes the lung surface to extract oxygen and give up carbon dioxide

A marine sea star was mistakenly placed in freshwater and it died. What is the most likely explanation for its death?
a) The sea star was stressed and needed more time to acclimate to new conditions.
b) The sea star is hyperosmotic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate.
c) The osmoregulatory system of the sea star could not handle the change in ionic content presented by the freshwater.
d) The cells of the sea star dehydrated and lost the ability to metabolize.
e) The contractile vacuoles used to regulate water content ruptured in the freshwater

b) The sea star is hyperosmotic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate.

Organisms categorized as osmoconformers are most likely
a) found in arid terrestrial environments.
b) found in fresh water lakes and streams.
c) found in terrestrial environments with adequate moisture.
d) amphibious.
e) marine.

e) marine

The body fluids of an osmoconformer would be __________ with its __________ environment.
isoosmotic; saltwater
hyperosmotic; saltwater
hypoosmotic; saltwater
hyperosmotic; freshwater
isotonic; freshwater

isoosmotic; saltwater

Compared to the seawater around them, most marine invertebrates are

isoosmotic

Which feature of osmoregulation is found in both marine and freshwater bony fish?
a) loss of water through the gills
b) loss of water in the urine
c) gain of salt through the gills
d) gain of water through food
e) no drinking of water

d) gain of water through food

Unlike most bony fishes, sharks maintain body fluids that are isoosmotic to sea water. They are therefore considered by many to be osmoconformers because of the unusual way they maintain homeostasis. They osmoregulate by
a) using their gills and kidneys to rid themselves of sea salts.
b) possessing a special adaptation that allows their cells to operate at an unusually high salt concentration.
c) monitoring dehydration at the cellular level with special gated aquaporins.
d) synthesizing trimethylamine oxide, a chemical that speeds salt removal from cells.
e) tolerating high urea concentrations that balance internal salt concentrations to sea water osmolarity.

e) tolerating high urea concentrations that balance internal salt concentrations to sea water osmolarity

A freshwater fish was accidentally placed in salt water. After several minutes in this saline water, it died. What is the most logical explanation for its death?
a) Brain cells lysed as a result of increased osmotic pressure in this hyperosmotic environment; death by loss of autonomic function.
b) Salt diffused into all the fish's cells causing them to swell and, in some cases, lyse.
c) Loss of water by osmosis in cells in vital organs resulting in cell death and eventually organ failure.
d) The kidneys were not able to keep up with the water removal necessary in this hyperosmotic environment creating an irrevocable loss of homeostasis.
e) The gills became encrusted with salt, resulting in inadequate gas exchange and a resulting asphyxiation.

c) loss of water by osmosis in cells in vital organs resulting in cell death and eventually organ failure

Where and from what compound(s) is urea produced?
a) bladder from uric acid and H2O
b) kidneys from glycerol and fatty acids
c) liver from NH3 and CO2
d) kidneys from glucose
e) liver from glycogen

c) liver form NH3 and CO2

Which of the following is true of urea? It is
a) the primary nitrogenous waste product of humans.
b) insoluble in water.
c) the primary nitrogenous waste product of most birds.
d) more toxic to human cells than ammonia.
e) the primary nitrogenous waste product of most aquatic invertebrates.

a) the primary nitrogenous waste product of humans

Which of the following is true of ammonia?
a) It is the major nitrogenous waste excreted by insects.
b) It is metabolically more expensive to synthesize than urea.
c) It can be stored as a precipitate.
d) It is soluble in water.
e) It has low toxicity relative to urea.

d it is soluble in water

The advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that
a) urea can be exchanged for Na+.
b) less nitrogen is removed from the body.
c) urea is less toxic than ammonia.
d) urea requires more water for excretion than ammonia.
e) urea does not affect the osmolar gradient.

c) urea is less toxic than ammonia

What is the main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds?
urea
ammonia
uric acid
nitrite
nitrate

uric acid

In animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced mostly from the catabolism of
starch and cellulose.
phospholipids and glycolipids.
proteins and nucleic acids.
fatty acids and glycerol.
triglycerides and steroids.

proteins and nucleic acids

Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid
a) requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal which is conducive to the function of flight in terms of weight.
b) is readily soluble in water.
c) excretion allows birds to live in desert environments.
d) is metabolically less expensive to synthesize than other excretory products.

a) requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal which is conducive to the function of flight in terms of weight.

The most concentrated urine is excreted by
kangaroo rats.
humans.
desert tortoises.
frogs.
birds.

kangaroo rats

Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by which of the following processes?
ultrafiltration
secretion
selective reabsorption
active transport
filtration

selective reabsorption

Which group possess excretory structures known as protonephridia?
earthworms
flatworms
vertebrates
insects
cnidarians

flatworms

Which group possess excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules?
insects
flatworms
jellyfish
earthworms
sea stars

insects

Which of the following would contain blood in a normally functioning nephron?
proximal tubule
loop of Henle
Bowman's capsule
collecting duct
vasa recta

vasa recta

Which structure passes urine to the renal pelvis?
proximal tubule
glomerulus
loop of Henle
Bowman's capsule
collecting duct

collecting duct

Which structure descends deep into the renal medulla only in juxtamedullary nephrons?
glomerulus
collecting duct
loop of Henle
proximal convoluted tubule
Bowman's capsule

loop of Henle

Which of the following processes of osmoregulation by the kidney is the least selective?
salt pumping to control osmolarity
H+ pumping to control pH
reabsorption
secretion
filtration

filtration

Proper functioning of the human kidney requires considerable active transport of sodium in the kidney tubules. If these active transport mechanisms were to stop completely, how would urine production be affected?
a) A greater-than-normal volume of hyperosmotic urine would be produced.
b) A less-than-normal volume of hypoosmotic urine would be produced.
c) A greater-than-normal volume of isoosmotic urine would be produced.
d) A less-than-normal volume of isoosmotic urine would be produced.
e) No urine would be produced.

cc) A greater-than-normal volume of isoosmotic urine would be produced.

Which one of the following is extremely important for water conservation in mammals?
urethra
podocytes
juxtamedullary nephrons
Bowman's capsule
ureter

juxtamedullary nephrons

What is the typical osmolarity of human blood?
300 mosm/L
200 mosm/L
100 mosm/L
500 mosm/L
30 mosm/L

300 mosm/L

Which one of the following, if present in a urine sample, would likely be caused by trauma?
glucose
erythrocytes
vitamins
amino acids
salts

erythrocytes

Which structure increases the reabsorption of Na+ when stimulated by aldosterone?
loop of Henle
Bowman's capsule
collecting duct
proximal tubule
distal tubules

distal tubules

What would account for increased urine production as a result of drinking alcoholic beverages?
a) increased reabsorption of water in the proximal tubule
b) the osmoregulator cells of the brain increasing their activity
c) inhibition of antidiuretic hormone secretion (ADH)
d) increased blood pressure
e) increased aldosterone production

c) inhibition of antidiuretic hormone secretion (ADH)

In a laboratory experiment with three groups, one group of people drinks pure water, a second group drinks an equal amount of beer, and a third group drinks an equal amount of concentrated salt solution all during the same time period. Their urine production is monitored for several hours. At the end of the measurement period, which group will have produced the greatest volume of urine and which group the least?
salt solution the most, water the least
water the most, beer the least
beer the most, salt solution the least
beer the most, water the least
There will be no significant difference between these groups.

beer the most, salt solution the least

How do ADH and RAAS work together in maintaining osmoregulatory homeostasis?
a) ADH an RAAS work antagonistically; ADH stimulates water reabsorption during dehydration and RAAS removal of water when it is in excess in body fluids.
b) ADH monitors appropriate osmolarity by reabsorption of water, and RAAS maintains osmolarity by stimulating Na+ reabsorption.
c) Both stimulate the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone which increases both blood volume and pressure.
d) Only when they are together in the receptor sites of proximal tubule cells, will reabsorption of essential nutrients back into the blood take place.
e) ADH monitors osmolarity of the blood and RAAS regulates blood volume.

b) ADH monitors appropriate osmolarity by reabsorption of water, and RAAS maintains osmolarity by stimulating Na+ reabsorption.

How does ADH function at the cellular level?
a) It causes membranes to include more phospholipids that have unsaturated fatty acids.
b) It decreases the speed at which filtrate flow through the nephron leading to increased reabsorption of water.
c) ADH stimulates the reabsorption of glucose through channel proteins.
d) It causes an increase in the number of aquaporin molecules of collecting duct cells.
e) It triggers the synthesis of an enzyme that makes the phospholipid bilayer more permeable to water

d) It causes an increase in the number of aquaporin molecules of collecting duct cells.

Which of the following nitrogenous wastes requires hardly any water for its excretion?
nitrogen gas
uric acid
urea
ammonia
amino acid

uric acid

Which of the following mechanisms for osmoregulation or nitrogen removal is correctly paired with its corresponding animal?
a) metanephridium-flatworm
b) Malpighian tubule-frog
c) direct cellular exchange-marine invertebrate
d) kidney-insect
e) flame bulb-snake

c) direct cellular exchange-marine invertebrate

What substance is secreted by the proximal-tubule cells and prevents the pH of urine from becoming too acidic?
salt
NaOH
ammonia
bicarbonate
glucose

ammonia

Which of the following excretory systems is partly based on the filtration of fluid under high hydrostatic pressure?
metanephridia of earthworms
Malpighian tubules of insects
kidneys of vertebrates
flame-bulb system of flatworms
protonephridia of rotifers

kidneys of vertebrates

Processing of filtrate in the proximal and distal tubules accomplishes what important function?
a) reabsorbing urea to maintain osmotic balance
b) maintaining a constant pH in body fluids
c) converting toxic ammonia to less toxic urea
d) sorting plasma proteins according to size
e) regulating the speed of blood flow through the nephron

b) maintaining a constant pH in body fluids

What is unique about transport epithelial cells in the ascending loop of Henle in humans?
a) 50% of their cell mass is comprised of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
b) They are not affected by high levels of nitrogenous wastes.
c) They are the largest epithelial cells in the body.
d) They are not in contact with interstitial fluid.
e) Their membranes are impermeable to water.

e) Their membranes are impermeable to water.

Which of the following activities would initiate an osmoregulatory adjustment brought about primarily through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system?
a) sleeping
b) drinking several glasses of water
c) spending several hours mowing the lawn on a hot day
d) eating a bag of potato chips
e) eating a pizza with olives and pepperoni

c) spending several hours mowing the lawn on a hot day

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