the shaft of long bones
hormone controlling osteoblasts and osteoclasts
muscles are composed of specialized threadlike cells that have the power to contract while bearing weight
myofibers are encased in this connective tissue envelope
packets of wrapped myofibers are bound in another connective tissue envelope creating bundles called
blends into the subcutaneous layer of the skin
muscles that work when adequate supplies of oxygen are easily accessible and burn very cleanly
muscle that works without adequat oxygen
byproduct of anaerobic combustion that is also a nerve irritant
immovable joints (between cranial bones)
slightly movable joints (vertebrae)
freely movable joints
chronic pain syndrome involving sleep disorders and the development of a predictable pattern of tender points in muscles and other soft tissues
11 active tender points are found distributed among all quadrants of the body, along with fatigue, morning stifness, and poor quality sleep
yes, be careful not to overtreat
does fibromyalgia indicate massage
myofascial pain syndrome
a collection of signs and symptoms associated with the development of myofascial trigger points in muscles
myofascial pain syndrome
recognized mainly by the trigger points in predictable locations
massage for myofascial pain syndrome?
means muscle inflammation with bone formation
the growth of a bony deposit in soft tissues.
massage on myositis ossificans?
an umbrella term used to describe a variety of lower leg problems.
a collection of lower leg injuries including compartment syndromes, muscle tears, periostitis, hairline fractures, and other problems - brought on by overuse and/or misalignment at the ankle
tiabialis anterior tibialist posterior
what muscles are associated with shin splints?
an involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle
torn muscle fibers
protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation, support
inflammation can be controlled by
a condition in which blood supply to an area of bone is interrupted and the bone tissue consequently dies...occuring most frequently at the head of the femur
any kind of broken or cracked bone
bone is completely broken but little or no damage has occurred to the surrounding soft tissues
the bone is cracked but not completely broken
the bone is completely broken and a great deal of soft tissue damage has occurred - the bone protrudes through the skin and is susceptible to infection.
bone bends and partially breaks
shattering of the broken bone
broken bone with one end wedged into the other
literally means "porous bones"
significant bone thinning
a loss of bone mass and density brought about by endocrine imbalances and poor metabolism of calcium
chronic bone disorder in which healthy bone is rapidly reabsorbed and replaced with fibrous connective tissue that never fully calcifies
overdeveloped thoracic or lumbar curves or a lateral curve in the spine
overdeveloped thoracic curve
overdeveloped lumbar curve
lateral curve of the spine
progressive inflammatory arthritis of the spine
injuries to joints in which the articulating bones are forcefully separated
inflammatory arthritis caused by deposits of sodium urate (uric acid) in and around joints, especially feet
gouty joints locally _____________ massage at all times
an infection of a spirochetal infection called "borrelia burgdorferi"
lyme disease causes a ____________ shaped rash
carries lyme disease
degenerative joint disease
joint inflammation brought about by wear and tear causing cumulative damage to articular cartilage
bulges at the distal interphalangeal joints (DIPs) and at the proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs)
an overuse disorder that can lead to damage of the patellar cartilage
causes pain at the knee, stiffness after immobility, and discomfort walking DOWNstairs
discomfort walking UPstairs
autoimmume disease in which the immune system agents attack synovial membranes, particularly of the joints in the hands and feet.
complications: nodules on the sclera of eyes, dry eyes and mouth, pleuritis, inflammation of pericardial sac, hepatitis (infl. of liver), vasculitis, bursitis, anemia, Raynaud syndrome
degeneration of the bones and discs in the spine
osteoarthritis in the spine
"fusion" of vertebral bodies
temporomandibular joint disorders
a multitude of problems in and around the jaw
a dysfunctional bite
a collection of genetic disorders that lead to problems with connective tissues. it affects the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and integumentary systems.
how is ehlers-danlos syndrome recognized?
genetic defect leading to problems in the construction of fibrillin, a connective tissue fiber. All connective tissues are affected with the most serious occuring in the skeleton, cardiovascular system, and eyes.
taller than average with very long fingers
a group of related inherited disorders characterized by degeneration and wasting of muscle tissue
a group of genetic disorders that affect the formation of type I collagen fibers. it results in bones that fracture easily, along with decreased muscle mass, ligament laxity, postural deviations, and several other problems.
synovial cysts found in the popliteal fossa, usually on the medial side.
baker cysts _____________ massage
baker cysts pose the threat of
a protrusion at the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe that occurs when the toe is laterally deviated
fluid filled sac that acts as a protective cushion
inflammation of the bursae
idiopathic shrinking and thickening of the fascia on the palm of hand
dupuytren contracture also called
(ledderhose disease) is essentially the same as dupuytren contracture, but it develops on the plantar aspect of the foot
a condition in which scar tissue develops under the skin of the shaft of the penis
small fluid-filled synovial sacs that are attached to tendinous sheaths or joint capsusles
form small bumps that usually appear on the hand, wrist, or ankle. not usually painful.
hyaluronic acid and glucosamine are inside _______________
a hole or rip through which the abdominal contents may protrude
hernia located superior to the umbilicus
the result of chronic or traumatic irritation at the insertion of the quadriceps tendon in combination with adolescent growth spurts
practically exclusive to youth athletes
in osgood-schlatter disease the ______________ is hot, swollen, and painful
"caved feet" or hyperaccentuated/jammed arches
a condition caused by repeated microscopic injury to the plantar fascia of the foot
plantar fasciitis is painful after prolonged ______________
rolling ice log with foot is indicated for
chronic autoimmune disorder involving damage to small blood vessels, leading to abnormal accumulations of collagen in the skin and other tissues.
hardening or thickening of the skin
calcinosis, raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia
CREST symptoms for scleroderma
chronic gastric problems
accumulation of calcium deposits in the skin, especially fingers
impaired circulation and vascular spasm in the hands
hardening of the fingers, result of accumulation of scar tissue in hands
injury and damage to tendons
irritation and inflammation of tendons that pass through a synovial sheath
also known as synovial sheath
usually caused by trauma, repetitive movement, infection, or gonorrhea
de quervain tenosynovitis
synovial sheath in thumb affected by tenosynovitis
CAD (cervical acceleration-deceleration)
carpal tunnel syndrome
irritation of the median nerve as it passes under the transverse carpal ligament into the wrist.
carpal tunnel syndrome
tingling, numbness, and weakness in the thumb, pointer, middle, and medial half of ring finger.
carpal tunnel test - tapping on the inside of wrist
carpal tunnel test - holding the wrist in flexion for 1 minute
the nucleus pulposus or the surrounding anulus fibrosus of an intervetebral disc protrudes - putting pressure on nerve roots, the cauda equina, or the spinal cord
tough outer wrapping on intervertebral disc
soft, gelatinous center of intervertebral disc
degenerative disc disease
small, cumulative tears of the annulus, along with decreased disc height and dehydration of the nucleus.
internal disc disruption
nucleus protrudes through the annulus but stays within the boudaries of the whole disc.
pins-and-needles sensation is felt along the affected dermatones
extensions of the spinal nerves between L1 and S5
neuromuscular disorder - autoimmune attacks acetylcholine receptors
weakness in facial muscles, difficulty speech, eating, swallowing
thoracic outlet syndrome
occlusion of nerve and blood supply to the arm
wright and adsons
thoracic outlet syndrome tests