Massage Therapy - Pathology Chapter 3

128 terms by eulabes

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diaphysis

the shaft of long bones

osteoblasts

bone builders

osteoclasts

bone clearers

calcitonin

hormone controlling osteoblasts and osteoclasts

myofibers

muscles are composed of specialized threadlike cells that have the power to contract while bearing weight

endomysium

myofibers are encased in this connective tissue envelope

fascicles

packets of wrapped myofibers are bound in another connective tissue envelope creating bundles called

epimysium

blends into the subcutaneous layer of the skin

aerobic metabolism

muscles that work when adequate supplies of oxygen are easily accessible and burn very cleanly

anaerobic metabolism

muscle that works without adequat oxygen

lactic acid

byproduct of anaerobic combustion that is also a nerve irritant

synarthroses

immovable joints (between cranial bones)

amphiarthroses

slightly movable joints (vertebrae)

diarthroses

freely movable joints

fibromyalgia

chronic pain syndrome involving sleep disorders and the development of a predictable pattern of tender points in muscles and other soft tissues

fibromyalgia

11 active tender points are found distributed among all quadrants of the body, along with fatigue, morning stifness, and poor quality sleep

yes, be careful not to overtreat

does fibromyalgia indicate massage

myofascial pain syndrome

a collection of signs and symptoms associated with the development of myofascial trigger points in muscles

myofascial pain syndrome

recognized mainly by the trigger points in predictable locations

yes

massage for myofascial pain syndrome?

myositis ossificans

means muscle inflammation with bone formation

myositis ossificans

the growth of a bony deposit in soft tissues.

locally contraindicated

massage on myositis ossificans?

shin splints

an umbrella term used to describe a variety of lower leg problems.

shin splints

a collection of lower leg injuries including compartment syndromes, muscle tears, periostitis, hairline fractures, and other problems - brought on by overuse and/or misalignment at the ankle

tiabialis anterior tibialist posterior

what muscles are associated with shin splints?

spasms, cramps

an involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle

strain

torn muscle fibers

protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation, support

PRICES

PRICES

inflammation can be controlled by

avascular osteonecrosis

a condition in which blood supply to an area of bone is interrupted and the bone tissue consequently dies...occuring most frequently at the head of the femur

fracture

any kind of broken or cracked bone

simple fracture

bone is completely broken but little or no damage has occurred to the surrounding soft tissues

incomplete fracture

the bone is cracked but not completely broken

compound fracture

the bone is completely broken and a great deal of soft tissue damage has occurred - the bone protrudes through the skin and is susceptible to infection.

greenstick fracture

bone bends and partially breaks

comminuted fracture

shattering of the broken bone

impacted fracture

broken bone with one end wedged into the other

osteoporosis

literally means "porous bones"

osteopenia

significant bone thinning

osteoporosis

a loss of bone mass and density brought about by endocrine imbalances and poor metabolism of calcium

paget disease

chronic bone disorder in which healthy bone is rapidly reabsorbed and replaced with fibrous connective tissue that never fully calcifies

postural deviation

overdeveloped thoracic or lumbar curves or a lateral curve in the spine

hyperkyphosis

overdeveloped thoracic curve

hyperlordosis

overdeveloped lumbar curve

scoliosis

lateral curve of the spine

ankylosing spondylitis

progressive inflammatory arthritis of the spine

dislocation

injuries to joints in which the articulating bones are forcefully separated

gout

inflammatory arthritis caused by deposits of sodium urate (uric acid) in and around joints, especially feet

contraindicate

gouty joints locally _____________ massage at all times

lyme disease

an infection of a spirochetal infection called "borrelia burgdorferi"

bullseye

lyme disease causes a ____________ shaped rash

deer tick

carries lyme disease

osteoarthritis

degenerative joint disease

osteoarthritis

joint inflammation brought about by wear and tear causing cumulative damage to articular cartilage

osteoarthriits

bulges at the distal interphalangeal joints (DIPs) and at the proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs)

patellofemoral syndrome

an overuse disorder that can lead to damage of the patellar cartilage

patellofemoral syndrome

causes pain at the knee, stiffness after immobility, and discomfort walking DOWNstairs

patellar tendonitis

discomfort walking UPstairs

rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmume disease in which the immune system agents attack synovial membranes, particularly of the joints in the hands and feet.

rheumatoid arthritis

complications: nodules on the sclera of eyes, dry eyes and mouth, pleuritis, inflammation of pericardial sac, hepatitis (infl. of liver), vasculitis, bursitis, anemia, Raynaud syndrome

spondylosis

degeneration of the bones and discs in the spine

spondylosis

osteoarthritis in the spine

spondylosis

"fusion" of vertebral bodies

sprain

injured ligament

temporomandibular joint disorders

a multitude of problems in and around the jaw

malocclusion

a dysfunctional bite

bruxism

teeth grinding

ehlers-danlos syndrome

a collection of genetic disorders that lead to problems with connective tissues. it affects the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and integumentary systems.

hypermobile joints

how is ehlers-danlos syndrome recognized?

marfan syndrome

genetic defect leading to problems in the construction of fibrillin, a connective tissue fiber. All connective tissues are affected with the most serious occuring in the skeleton, cardiovascular system, and eyes.

marfan syndrome

taller than average with very long fingers

muscular dystrophy

a group of related inherited disorders characterized by degeneration and wasting of muscle tissue

muscular dystrophy

X linked

osteogenesis imperfecta

a group of genetic disorders that affect the formation of type I collagen fibers. it results in bones that fracture easily, along with decreased muscle mass, ligament laxity, postural deviations, and several other problems.

osteogenesis imperfecta

fractures easily

baker cysts

synovial cysts found in the popliteal fossa, usually on the medial side.

locally contraindicate

baker cysts _____________ massage

thrombosis

baker cysts pose the threat of

bunion

a protrusion at the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe that occurs when the toe is laterally deviated

bursa

fluid filled sac that acts as a protective cushion

bursitis

inflammation of the bursae

dupuytren contracture

idiopathic shrinking and thickening of the fascia on the palm of hand

palmar fascitis

dupuytren contracture also called

plantar fibromatosis

(ledderhose disease) is essentially the same as dupuytren contracture, but it develops on the plantar aspect of the foot

peyronie disease

a condition in which scar tissue develops under the skin of the shaft of the penis

ganglion cysts

small fluid-filled synovial sacs that are attached to tendinous sheaths or joint capsusles

ganglion cysts

form small bumps that usually appear on the hand, wrist, or ankle. not usually painful.

ganglion cysts

hyaluronic acid and glucosamine are inside _______________

hernia

a hole or rip through which the abdominal contents may protrude

epigastric hernia

hernia located superior to the umbilicus

osgood-schlatter disease

the result of chronic or traumatic irritation at the insertion of the quadriceps tendon in combination with adolescent growth spurts

osgood-schlatter disease

practically exclusive to youth athletes

tibial tuberosity

in osgood-schlatter disease the ______________ is hot, swollen, and painful

pes planus

"flat feet"

pes cavus

"caved feet" or hyperaccentuated/jammed arches

plantar fasciitis

a condition caused by repeated microscopic injury to the plantar fascia of the foot

immobility

plantar fasciitis is painful after prolonged ______________

plantar fasciitis

rolling ice log with foot is indicated for

scleroderma

chronic autoimmune disorder involving damage to small blood vessels, leading to abnormal accumulations of collagen in the skin and other tissues.

scleroderma

hardening or thickening of the skin

calcinosis, raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia

CREST symptoms for scleroderma

talangiectasia

spider veins

esophogeal dysmotility

chronic gastric problems

calcinosis

accumulation of calcium deposits in the skin, especially fingers

raynaud phenomenon

impaired circulation and vascular spasm in the hands

sclerodactyly

hardening of the fingers, result of accumulation of scar tissue in hands

tendinopathies

injury and damage to tendons

tenosynovitis

irritation and inflammation of tendons that pass through a synovial sheath

epitenon

also known as synovial sheath

tenosynovitis

usually caused by trauma, repetitive movement, infection, or gonorrhea

de quervain tenosynovitis

synovial sheath in thumb affected by tenosynovitis

whiplash

CAD (cervical acceleration-deceleration)

carpal tunnel syndrome

irritation of the median nerve as it passes under the transverse carpal ligament into the wrist.

carpal tunnel syndrome

tingling, numbness, and weakness in the thumb, pointer, middle, and medial half of ring finger.

tinel's test

carpal tunnel test - tapping on the inside of wrist

phalen's maneuver

carpal tunnel test - holding the wrist in flexion for 1 minute

disc disease

the nucleus pulposus or the surrounding anulus fibrosus of an intervetebral disc protrudes - putting pressure on nerve roots, the cauda equina, or the spinal cord

annulus fibrosus

tough outer wrapping on intervertebral disc

nucleus pulposus

soft, gelatinous center of intervertebral disc

degenerative disc disease

small, cumulative tears of the annulus, along with decreased disc height and dehydration of the nucleus.

internal disc disruption

nucleus protrudes through the annulus but stays within the boudaries of the whole disc.

parasthesia

pins-and-needles sensation is felt along the affected dermatones

cauda equina

extensions of the spinal nerves between L1 and S5

myasthenia gravis

neuromuscular disorder - autoimmune attacks acetylcholine receptors

myasthenia gravis

weakness in facial muscles, difficulty speech, eating, swallowing

thoracic outlet syndrome

occlusion of nerve and blood supply to the arm

wright and adsons

thoracic outlet syndrome tests

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