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the amount of energy that is estimated to be contained in the nucleus of a grain of sand would

provide a year's worth of energy for the U.S.

which of the following is true about radioactive decay?

a helium proton was the first particle identified as a product of radioactive decay

electrons and protons differ in their

mass and charge

how do two isotopes of the same element differ?

their neutrons differ in number

the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission is that

fusion combines two nuclei into one, fission splits a nucleus apart

a particular isotope has a half life of 10 minutes. if we state with 2,000 atoms now, in a half hour we will have how many atoms left?

250 atoms

how many protons, neutrons, and electors are contained in uranium-238

92 protons, 146 neutrons, and 92 electrons

which force holds the nucleus together?

strong force

a scientist who uses carbon-14 dating is actually measuring the

time of death of a living thing

a biography of Marie Curie would include the fact that she

won the Nobel Prize in physics and chemistry

most of the energy in a nuclear power plant is generated by conversion of

mass into heat energy

one characteristic of radon-222 is that

it is inert

safety features in nuclear power plants include

a self contained system for all cooling water coming in contact with the radioactive material

the Yucca mountain project for nuclear waste disposal

is a plan to bury nuclear wastes in underground tunnels

nuclear quantum leaps

shift particles in a nucleus to different energy levels

elements heavier than uranium have been produced by scientists who

bombard a heavy element like lead with krypton ions

which of these is not classified as a high level radioactive material?

medical wastes

matter is converted to energy in all except for which of the following?

all of the above convert matter into energy

if you plotted the number of neutrons against the number of protons of all atoms listed in the periodic table of the elements what would you discover?

all of the above

when we say that radioactivity is natures philosophers stone we mean that

radioactivity can change the number of protons in a given nucleus

which of the following statements is a characteristic of radioactivity

much of earths interior heat comes from alpha decay

an electron is to a beta particle as helium is to a(n)

alpha particle

if an atom emits two protons and two neutrons, the atom has

all of the above

long term effects of radioactive exposure will

cause birth defects

how to isotopes of the same elements differ

their neutrons differ in number

a scientist who uses carbon-14 dating is actually measuring the

time since death of a living thing

an electron is to a beta particle as helium is to an

alpha particle

which group below shows the building blocks of matter in order of their size, smallest to largest

quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule

the difference between a quark and a lepton is

quarks exist in the nucleus; leptons do not

which two forces have infinite range

gravity and electromagnetic

quarks are one of the basic building blocks of matter. which of the following particles or structures would not contain any quarks at all

an electron

how do quarks differ from other elementary particles

only six kinds of quarks make up the hundreds of nuclear particles

the energy source of stars is primarily associated with

the reactions of nuclei in the star core

which of the following can be said about large stars

large stars have a shorter lifetime than smaller stars

the end products of fusion in the Sun's core are

helium isotopes, protons, and gamma rays

from what part of the electromagnetic spectrum is most of the Sun's energy emitted

visible light waves

which of the following is not an endpoint of stellar revolution

main sequence star

where were the heaviest chemical elements on Earth created

supernovae

red giants can be described as

large stars that emit a lot of energy but have cool surfaces

what were the first three elements from in the Big Bang

hydrogen, lithium, and helium

which statement about dark matter is accepted by most astronomers

dark matter interacts with ordinary matter through a gravitational force

evidence for the Big Band includes the

all of these are correct

the total number of protons in the nucleus is called the

atomic number

which particle found in the nucleus of the atom has no electrical charge

neutron

which type of radioactive decay emits electrons

beta

which of the following elements poses a health threat to people in a well-insulated tightly sealed building

radon

this type of radioactive decay releases energy from the nucleus without changing the element

gamma

the nucleus of this element is created during alpha decay

helium

the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the

mass number

during nuclear fission, mass is converted into

energy

this force holds the atomic nucleus together

the strong force

radium and polonium were first isolated by

marie curie

the existence of radioactivity was first discovered by

antoine becquerel

the existence of alpha decay in radioactive uranium was first discovered by

ernest rutherford

a form of an element having different numbers of neutrons in its nucleus is called

an isotope

during the nuclear fission reaction in a reactor that generates electricity, uranium-235 releases

neutrons

the tine particle released during beta decay that has no electric charge is

a neutrino

the complete radioactive decay of radioactive uranium produces the stable element

lead

the time it takes for half of the atoms of a given amount of radioactive element to spontaneous decay is termed as

half-life

the atomic number of oxygen is 8. oxygen-18 must have __ neutrons in its nucleus

10

a radioactive element that can be injected into a person to detect the presence of diseased cells that will accumulate the element is called

a tracer

the combination of two atomic nuclei is referred to as fusion, whereas the splitting of a single atom nucleus is

fission

which of the following is not included in the six quarks

beauty

the graviton is the gauge particle for

gravity

which of these has the smallest mass

quark

hardrons are found in

the nucleus

the antimatter equivalent of the proton is the

antiproton

non-nuclear elementary particles are called

leptons

which of the following particles rain down continuously on the atmosphere of the Earth

cosmic rays

the elementary particle with the mass of an electron but a positive charge is the

positron

which of the following forces has an infinite range

gravity

the first cyclotron was produced by

Earnest Lawrence

how many types of quarks exist

6

w and z particles are the gauge particles of

the weak force

the idea that at high enough temperatures all four fundamental forces unite is the basis of

the theory of everything

car anderson first discovered

antimatter

cosmic rays originate from

outer space

which of the following is a lepton

electron

which of the following is a hadron

neutron

hadrons are composed of

quarks

all hadrons

are found in the nucleus

which of the following is not classified as an elementary particle

atom

which of the following is an immense fusion reactor in space

the Sun

which region of the electromagnetic spectrum can easily reach a telescope on earth's surface

radio waves

in the core of the sun, hydrogen nuclei fuse to form

helium

the most abundant element in the universe is

hydrogen

the stream of charged particles that flow from the sun is called the

solar wind

which type of star is produced after a large star explodes in a supernova

a neutron star

the outer layer of the sun that radiates energy into space is the

photosphere

the central portion of a star that produces energy through nuclear reactions is the

core

a small star that has a very high surface temperature but emits low amounts of energy is a

white dwarf

during helium burning, helium nuclei fuse to produce the element

carbon

the element that accumulates in the interior of large stars that does not release energy by any reaction is

iron

elements on the periodic table higher iron are created during

supernovae

an object in the universe that will not allow the escape of anything from its gravitation field is a

black hole

when a very large star explodes at the end of its life, it is called a

supernova

our sun is currently classified as a

main sequence star

which of the following is an earth-based telescope

keck telescope

the region of the suns interior that conducts energy between the innermost portion and the outermost portion is the

convection zone

from the inside out, the layers of our sun are

core, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona

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