are characterized by interdependent function of leaves, stems, and roots called the vascular system
ferns and mosses
gymnosperms and angiosperms
usually have no cones, flowers, and seeds aren't inclosed in fruit; pines, spruces, and firs
means "covered seed", and are the most successful and advanced plants on earth
have one blade shaped cotyledon, class liliopsida
have two round cotyledons, class magnoliopsida
During germination the young seedling is dependent upon the food stored within the cotyledons or ______.
The young plant does not become independent and manufacture its own food until the roots are partially developed and the _______ has reached the light.
Mature ovule becomes the ______ _______.
above ground emergence; hypocotyl being active and pulling the cotyledon above ground
below ground emergence; epicotyl elongates pushing the cotyledon above ground
monocot leaf venation pattern
dicot leaf venation pattern
simple dicot leaf
leaf blade, petiole, veins, node, stem
parts of monocot leaf
node, blade, sheath, stem, collar, auricle, ligule
composed of a single leaf and a petiole
are composed of a blade that includes several leaflets and a petiole, also contains a rachis
the lobes or divisions come together and are attached at one place at the base
compound leaf with the leaflets on two opposite sides, but off of one node
small and run more or less parallel, most are long and narrow; mostly monocots
are large and small, the small ones connecting to each other to form a net, mostly dicots
with one larger midvein and smaller veins coming off along its legnth, mostly dicots
with two or more large veins arising at or near the base of the leaf blade, leaves are usually broad or fat, mostly dicots
dicots; seed contains an undeveloped embryo, embryonic root (radicle) grows by dividing and elongation of cells to form one primary root
monocots; embryos have a single radicle (root shoot) along with other embryonic roots (seminal roots) forming just above the radicle
carbohydrates (starch, sugars), proteins (amino acids), oils (fats)
3 basic chemical components
embryo, energy source, outer covering
3 basic seed components
have lots of carbohydrates stored in endosperm
have lots of proteins and oils stored in cotyledons
usually the product of sexual production
non-sexual seed development
seed germination and seedling development
most susceptible stage of plant growth
the sequence of events leading to the reinitiantion of active growth of embryo, rupture of seed covering and emergence of seedling
first true leaves
radicle (embryonic root), hypocotyl (embryonic shoot), cotyledons (seed leaves)
the first part of the seed to emerge during germination, grows downward in the soil
emerges and lifts the growing up above the ground after emergence of the radicle; develops into the stem
part of the cotyledon that protects the young stem and plumule as growth pushes them up through the soil
become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling and wither as first true leaves take over food production, contain the stored food reserves of the seed, may turn green and begin photosynthesis as used up
a tissue within the seed that is specialized to absorb stored food from the adjacent endosperm
______ emergence expand on the germination of seed, throw off the seed shell, become photosynthetic above ground
not expanding, remain below ground, don't become photosynthetic
dicot; grown in the light develop short hypocotyls, open cotyledons exposing the epicotyls
seedlings grown in the dark develop long hypocotyls, their cotyledons remain closed around epicotyl in an apical hook, seedlings are yellowish
Breaking the surface and reaching the light _________ is switched to ___________.
The _________ open up upon contact with light and become green, forming the first photosynthetic organs of the young plant.
Once the seedling starts to photosynthesize it no longer depends on the seeds ________ reserves.
typically the small single point like area at the tip of a shoot that supply cells for the plant to increase in length (grow up for shoots and down for roots)
cotyledon don't have vascular system ( no leaf venation)
the primary growing point located at the apex (tip) of the stem
develops in the axil of a leaf of a plant
Axillary buds develop from ________ which then become a new stem.
secondary stems, flowers, leaves, roots
The axillary meristem can give rise to _________ ________, ________, _______, or ________.
Leaf blades and stems grow from ________ ________ (bottom of internode) ; only in monocots.
attachment of scuttellum within the embryo
attachment of coleoptile, no whorl of roots develop here
attachment of first true leaves
New root comes from the _______ part.
viable seed, mature seed, oxygen, moisture, proper temperature
requirements for seed germination