a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyze to give other sugars
an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
a digestive organ that releases enzymes into the small intestine. Also an endocrine gland that regulates glucose levels in the blood by the release of insulin or glucagon from specialized cells called islets of Langerhans.
storage site for glycogen
type I diabetes
Condition in which insulin is not produced by pancreas
a sugar comprising one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures.
A monosaccharide that joins with glucose to create lactose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
an inabliity to produce lactase
a hormone, secreted by the pancreas, that increases blood sugar by stimulating the hydrolysis of glycogen (to glucose) in the liver
a digestive enzyme that breaks lactose into glucose and galactose
glucose + glucose
a five-carbon sugar present in RNA
an isomer of glucose; it has the same chemical formula (C6 H12 O6) but its atoms are arranged differently
hormone secreted by the pancreas to decrease blood sugar
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
synonym for dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
glucose + fructose
sucrose, maltose, lactose
a polymer made of glucose monomers reinforced by hydrogen bonds that is the main constituent of plant fiber
polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants
sugar in DNA
stomach chamber in cows and related animals in which symbiotic bacteria digest cellulose
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
type II diabetes
Associated with a moderate decline in insulin production accompanied by a markedly deficient response to the insulin present in the body. Obese persons are morel likely to develop Type II.