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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Fertilization in higher plants
  2. Meiosis II
  3. binary fission
  4. Diploid dominant species
  5. prometaphase
  1. a prokaryotes reproduce via binary fission: Prior to division, the bacterial cell replicates its DNA
    Then the cell divides into two daughter cells by a process termed binary fission

    1)Cell increases in density
    2)Gets a signal for DNA to divide
    3)n prokaryotic organisms, dna is naked DNA, it is not enclosed in a membrane bound nucleus
    4)Once the cell reaches maximum density, it divides into 2 clusters of circular DNA
    5)Then there is septum formation
    6)This requires FTSZ protein - filamenting temperature sensitive mutant z

    First identified in a mutant form where the circular form is elongated and did not form the septum well
    This protein is the first one deposited in the form of the ring in the middle of the bacterial cell (a ring) acts as a motor to recruit 9 other proteins to form septum
    Then it divides into 2 daughter cells.
    Conjugation + plasma transfer = genetic recombination in prokaryotes
  2. b a double fertilization

    the endosperm (which uses a large amount of plant resources) will develop only when an egg cell has been fertilized

    After fertilization is complete
    The ovule develops into a seed
    The surrounding ovary develops into a fruit
    Which encloses one or more seeds
  3. c 1)Spindle fibers interact with the sister chromatids
    2) Kinetochore microtubules grow from the two poles
    If they make contact with a kinetochore, the sister chromatid is "captured"
    If not, the microtubule depolymerizes and retracts to the centrosome
    3)The two kinetochores on a pair of sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore MTs on opposite poles
    Functioning of spindle apparatus is complete in prometaphase
    Clasping the kinetochore proteins on either side of the sister chromatids is the most important part.
    Sister chromatids must be connected to both poles
  4. d For a diploid organism with 6 chromosomes, mitosis begins with 12 chromatids joined as 6 pairs of suster chromatids
    Meiosis 2 begins w/ 6 chromatids joined as 3 pairs of sister chromatids
    THERE IS NO S PHASE
    Already in the form of sister chromatids

    PROMETAPHSE- each pair of S chromatid is connected to either pole.
    Then we have metaphase - a single row of very differenlt looking s. chromatids.
    Anaphase - each pair of s. chromatids becomes a chromosome
    Telophase 2, cytokensis
    Results in 4 cells as 2 rounds of meiodid
    In the book it says 4 daughter cells, but cells from meiosis are NOT DAUGHTER CELLS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL. They are gametes.
  5. e b/c all of our somatic cells are diploid mitosis dominates
    Each type of chromosome has 2 copies, 1 maternal homologue and 1 paternal homologue
    Homologous pair

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. One purpose of cell division is asexual reproduction
    A second important reason for cell division is multicellularity
    Plants, animals and certain fungi are derived from a single cell that has undergone repeated cell divisions
    For example
    Humans start out as a single fertilized egg
    End up as an adult with several trillion cells
  2. Size, position of centromere, and banding patterns
    They are not identical to each other
    Although we have the same genes, we have different alleles.
  3. the cell accumulates the materials that are necessary for nuclear and cell division
  4. mitosis
  5. Prophase I  most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:
    3) PACHYTENE:
    4) DIPLOTENE:
    5) DIAKINESIS:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.

5 True/False questions

  1. S phasewhere chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids

          

  2. sperm structureA long flagellum
    A head
    The head contains a haploid nucleus
    Capped by the acrosome

          

  3. oogenisisThe production of egg cells

    In female animals, it occurs in the ovaries

    Early in development, diploid oogonia produce diploid primary oocytes
    In humans, for example, about 1 million primary occytes per ovary are produced before birth

    Takes place in the ovaries
    Start with the oogonia (2n)  undergoes mitosis and creates primary oocytes (Diploid)
    These enter into meiotic 1 division. The division is stalled at prophase 1
    It waits under the female is sexually mature to proceed to the rest of the stages

    The primary oocytes initiate meiosis I
    However, they enter into a dormant phase
    They are arrested in Prophase I until the female becomes sexually mature
    At puberty, primary oocytes are periodically activated to progress through meiosis I
    In humans, one oocyte per month is activated
    The division in meiosis I is asymmetric producing two haploid cells of unequal size
    A large secondary oocyte oocyte
    A small polar body

    The secondary oocyte enters meiosis II but is quickly arrested in it
    It is released into the oviduct
    An event called ovulation
    If the secondary oocyte is fertilized
    The haploid egg and sperm nuclei then fuse to created the diploid nucleus of a new individual
    During the 1st meiotic division, it is not symmetrical.
    1 secondary oocyte (Very large)
    1 polar body ( will sometimes undergo 2nd meiotic division and sometimes it wont)
    Can have 1 egg cell and 1 polar body or 1 egg cell or 3 polar bodies

          

  4. mitosis vs meiosisMitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.

          

  5. Polar micro tubuluespropagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position

          

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