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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. prophase I meiosis
  2. Diploid dominant species
  3. LEPTOTENE
  4. S phase
  5. DIAKINESIS
  1. a all of the synaptonemal complexes dissolve and the sister chromatids are separated. From now on, these 2 pairs are always going to move in pairs. The last part of chromosomal changes occurs here in diakinesis. This sister chromatids do not look like the original sister chromatids. This is why we have variation
  2. b where chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids
  3. c compaction of chromosome, homologous partner seek for one another (this occurs towards the end of leptotene). The first major change is compaction.
  4. d Prophase I  most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:
    3) PACHYTENE:
    4) DIPLOTENE:
    5) DIAKINESIS:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.
  5. e b/c all of our somatic cells are diploid mitosis dominates
    Each type of chromosome has 2 copies, 1 maternal homologue and 1 paternal homologue
    Homologous pair

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The life cycles of plant species alternate between two generations
    Haploid, which is termed the gametophyte
    Diploid, which is termed the sporophyte
    Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores
    Spores divide by mitosis to produce the gametophyte
    Alternate between gametophyte and sporeophyte
    Gametophyte (haploid)
    Sporophyte (diploid)
    Alternation of generation plant have huge sporophyte and tiny gametophytes
    Angiosperm - plant that produces flowers and seeds
    - spermatogenesis takes place in the anther
    - they hold the pollen grains
    -
    Meosis
    Creates 4 microspores
    They undergo mitosis
    You end up with 8 cells.
    There is a tube cell and a generative cell (which will under go mitosis and create 2 sperm cells after the pollen grain falls on the stigma nuclei)
    The tube and generative cell have a thick cell wall that creates the pollen grain
    Female 
    Megasporocyte undergoes meiosis  creates 4 megaspores but 3 degenerate
    The megaspore will undergo 3 rounds of mitotic division with asymmetrical cytokenisis  this leads to 7 cells instead of the expected 8
    Only 7 rounds of cytokenesis
    1 central cell with 2 haploid nuclei, then you have 3 antipodal cells and 2 synergid cells. This all results from the 3 mitotic divisions.
    1 cell does not undergo cytokenesis  you have 2 haploid nuclei in 1 central cell. This is called the endosperm (provides nutrition)
    Once the pollen grain falls on the stigma, the tube cell crates the pollen tube, the sperm will fertilize the egg and one will fertilize the central cell. This creates a zygote and an ensodsperm. The first fertilization is btw the egg and sperm
    Ovary = seed
  2. haploid sperm nucleus in hea
  3. 1)Chromosomes are decondensed
    2)By the end of this phase, the chromosomes have already replicated
    3)The centrosome divides

    Chromosomes are NOT condensed
    Interphase is characterized by g1
    It is accumulating proteins
    There are DECONDENSED chromosomes
    The cell increases in density
    Replication of DNA  become sister chromatids
    Replication of organelles (kineotochore deposition)
    Microtubulue organizing centers (centrosomes replicate)
  4. Interphase I
    Early Prophase I
    Late Prophase I
    Prometaphase I
  5. Most eukaryotic species are diploid
    Have two sets of chromosomes
    Members of a pair of chromosomes are called homologues
    The two homologues form a homologous pair

5 True/False Questions

  1. kinetochorebound to the centromere of each individual chromosome

          

  2. meiosisMeiosis begins after a cell has progressed through interphase of the cell cycle - gametocyte
    Meiosis involves two successive divisions
    These are termed meiosis 1 and 2
    Each of these is subdivided into
    Prophase
    Prometaphase
    Metaphase
    Anaphase
    Telophase

    Prophase I is further subdividd into periods known as
    Leptotene
    Zygotene
    Pachytene
    Diplotene
    Diaknesis

    NO S PHASE - b/c you do not need another round of synthetic phase

          

  3. prophase1) Nuclear envelope dissociates into smaller vesicles
    2)Centrosomes separate to opposite poles
    3) The mitotic spindle apparatus is formed
    Composed of mircotubules (MTs)

    Condensation of chromosome, compaction BEGINS as prophase
    All of the euchromatic regions will become heterochromatic
    Nucleolous synthesize ribosomalRNA - as chromosomes compact, the nucleolous disappears
    Nuclear membrane is converted into vesicles
    Different microtubulues are made - spindle apparatus
    Aster microtubulues - propagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position
    Polar micro tubulues - polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other
    Kinetochore microtubulue - come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage

          

  4. sperm structureA long flagellum
    A head
    The head contains a haploid nucleus
    Capped by the acrosome

          

  5. PACHYTENEEnzymes allow for crossing over. There is a recombination nodule. Enzymes identify areas of homology and allow for exchange.

          

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