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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. telophase and cytokinesis
  2. Anaphase I
  3. meiosis I
  4. mitosis
  5. M phase
  1. a Chromosomes reach their respective poles and decondense
    Nuclear membrane reforms to form two separate nuclei
    In most cases, mitosis is quickly followed by cytokinesis
    Mitosis and cytokinesis ultimately produce two daughter cells having the same number of chromosomes as the mother cell
    The two daughter cells are genetically identical to each other
    Barring rare mutations
    Reverse prophase = telophase
    Decondensation
    Reformation of the nucleolous and nuclear membrane
    No polar microtubulues or spindle apparatus, there are 2 nuclei


    Cytokeneisis
    - Actin below the plasma membrane. They will start overlapping and will form a cleavage furrow which is going to move into the cell and pinch it off.
    Plant cells have a cell wall so there is no "pinching." the cell wall material will be deposited as a cell plate into the middle of the cell which will extend out and touch the plasma membrane, initiating middle lamina deposition (negatively charged pectins)

    Results in 2 daughter cells that are identical in genetic material
  2. b subdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase
  3. c mitosis
  4. d Interphase I
    Early Prophase I
    Late Prophase I
    Prometaphase I
  5. e ANAPHASE
    The two pairs of sister chromatids separarate from each other. However the connection that holds sister chromatids together does not break
    Polar MT - polymerize
    Kinetochore MT - depolarize
    Each pair for sister chromatids move towards the poles.
    You get a reduction in the number of chromosomes
    Sister chromatids reach their respective poles and decondense. The nuclear envelope reforms to produce 2 separate nuclei.
    Only 1 copy of each type of chromosome on either pole
    1 copy of each type of

    Chromosome complement looks different from the original cell.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The production of sperm
    In male animals, it occurs in the testes
    A diploid spermatogonium cell divides mitotically to produce two cells
    The primary spermatocyte progresses through meiosis I and II
    Testes undergo spermatogenesis
    Spermatogonia 2n (germ cells)
    First division that takes place to the spermatogonia creates 1 cell that is a spermatogonia and the other is a primary spermatocyte
    The primary spermatocyte is the first one that undergoes meiosis
  2. prokaryotes reproduce via binary fission: Prior to division, the bacterial cell replicates its DNA
    Then the cell divides into two daughter cells by a process termed binary fission

    1)Cell increases in density
    2)Gets a signal for DNA to divide
    3)n prokaryotic organisms, dna is naked DNA, it is not enclosed in a membrane bound nucleus
    4)Once the cell reaches maximum density, it divides into 2 clusters of circular DNA
    5)Then there is septum formation
    6)This requires FTSZ protein - filamenting temperature sensitive mutant z

    First identified in a mutant form where the circular form is elongated and did not form the septum well
    This protein is the first one deposited in the form of the ring in the middle of the bacterial cell (a ring) acts as a motor to recruit 9 other proteins to form septum
    Then it divides into 2 daughter cells.
    Conjugation + plasma transfer = genetic recombination in prokaryotes
  3. areas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.
  4. haploid sperm nucleus in hea
  5. a cell prepares to divide
    The cell reaches a restriction point and is committed on a pathway to cell division

5 True/False questions

  1. Relationship between genetic trait and inheritance of a sex chromosomedaughter 2n cells.

          

  2. Purpose for divisionProphase I  most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:
    3) PACHYTENE:
    4) DIPLOTENE:
    5) DIAKINESIS:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.

          

  3. Aster microtubuluespolymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other, positioning spindle apparatus

          

  4. DIAKINESISall of the synaptonemal complexes dissolve and the sister chromatids are separated. From now on, these 2 pairs are always going to move in pairs. The last part of chromosomal changes occurs here in diakinesis. This sister chromatids do not look like the original sister chromatids. This is why we have variation

          

  5. interphase nucleusIn actively dividing cells, G1, S and G2 are collectively known as interphase
    A cell may remain for long periods of time in the G0 phase
    A cell in this phase has
    Either postponed making a
    decision to divide
    Or made the decision to never
    divide again
    Terminally differentiated cells
    (e.g. nerve cells)

          

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