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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Spermatogenesis
  2. Haploid dominant species
  3. G2 phase
  5. G1 phase
  1. a Enzymes allow for crossing over. There is a recombination nodule. Enzymes identify areas of homology and allow for exchange.
  2. b a cell prepares to divide
    The cell reaches a restriction point and is committed on a pathway to cell division
  3. c the cell accumulates the materials that are necessary for nuclear and cell division
  4. d spends most of its life in its haploid state
  5. e The production of sperm
    In male animals, it occurs in the testes
    A diploid spermatogonium cell divides mitotically to produce two cells
    The primary spermatocyte progresses through meiosis I and II
    Testes undergo spermatogenesis
    Spermatogonia 2n (germ cells)
    First division that takes place to the spermatogonia creates 1 cell that is a spermatogonia and the other is a primary spermatocyte
    The primary spermatocyte is the first one that undergoes meiosis

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Bivalents are organized along the metaphase plate
    Pairs of sister chromatids are aligned in a double row, rather than a single row (as in mitosis)
    The arrangement is random with regards to the (blue and red) homologues
    A pair of sister chromatids is linked to one of the poles
    And the homologous pair is linked to the opposite pole
  2. Interphase I
    Early Prophase I
    Late Prophase I
    Prometaphase I
  3. prokaryotes reproduce via binary fission: Prior to division, the bacterial cell replicates its DNA
    Then the cell divides into two daughter cells by a process termed binary fission

    1)Cell increases in density
    2)Gets a signal for DNA to divide
    3)n prokaryotic organisms, dna is naked DNA, it is not enclosed in a membrane bound nucleus
    4)Once the cell reaches maximum density, it divides into 2 clusters of circular DNA
    5)Then there is septum formation
    6)This requires FTSZ protein - filamenting temperature sensitive mutant z

    First identified in a mutant form where the circular form is elongated and did not form the septum well
    This protein is the first one deposited in the form of the ring in the middle of the bacterial cell (a ring) acts as a motor to recruit 9 other proteins to form septum
    Then it divides into 2 daughter cells.
    Conjugation + plasma transfer = genetic recombination in prokaryotes
    The two pairs of sister chromatids separarate from each other. However the connection that holds sister chromatids together does not break
    Polar MT - polymerize
    Kinetochore MT - depolarize
    Each pair for sister chromatids move towards the poles.
    You get a reduction in the number of chromosomes
    Sister chromatids reach their respective poles and decondense. The nuclear envelope reforms to produce 2 separate nuclei.
    Only 1 copy of each type of chromosome on either pole
    1 copy of each type of

    Chromosome complement looks different from the original cell.
  5. In many animal species, chromosomes play a role in sex determinationThe sex chromosomes are designated Z and W
    Males contain two Z chromosomes
    Females have one X and one Y chromosome
    Haplo-diploid system
    Males are known as the drones
    They are haploid
    Females include the worker bees and queen bees
    They are diploid
    Xx and Xy in humans
    Xx and Xo in insects (ratio of chromosomes to autosomes, ratio of 1 = female, .5 = male)
    ZZ (male) ZW female (fish)
    Fertilization vs. parthenogenesis (ants, bees, wasps) - males are always haploid, females are diploid.
    Environmental factors that influence sex  alligators
    At a 33 degrees it is males
    Below 33 it creates females

5 True/False questions

  1. Relationship between genetic trait and inheritance of a sex chromosomedaughter 2n cells.


  2. metaphase1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole


  3. DIPLOTENEcompaction of chromosome, homologous partner seek for one another (this occurs towards the end of leptotene). The first major change is compaction.


  4. Gamete Formation in Plantsa double fertilization

    the endosperm (which uses a large amount of plant resources) will develop only when an egg cell has been fertilized

    After fertilization is complete
    The ovule develops into a seed
    The surrounding ovary develops into a fruit
    Which encloses one or more seeds


  5. prophase I meiosisMitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.


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