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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Anaphase I
  2. mitosis
  3. Eukaryotic Chromosomes
  4. ZYGOTENE
  5. Metaphase I
  1. a ANAPHASE
    The two pairs of sister chromatids separarate from each other. However the connection that holds sister chromatids together does not break
    Polar MT - polymerize
    Kinetochore MT - depolarize
    Each pair for sister chromatids move towards the poles.
    You get a reduction in the number of chromosomes
    Sister chromatids reach their respective poles and decondense. The nuclear envelope reforms to produce 2 separate nuclei.
    Only 1 copy of each type of chromosome on either pole
    1 copy of each type of

    Chromosome complement looks different from the original cell.
  2. b Most eukaryotic species are diploid
    Have two sets of chromosomes
    Members of a pair of chromosomes are called homologues
    The two homologues form a homologous pair
  3. c Bivalents are organized along the metaphase plate
    Pairs of sister chromatids are aligned in a double row, rather than a single row (as in mitosis)
    The arrangement is random with regards to the (blue and red) homologues
    Furthermore
    A pair of sister chromatids is linked to one of the poles
    And the homologous pair is linked to the opposite pole
  4. d subdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase
  5. e they have found their partners and come close together. Then, proteins are deposited which create the synaptonemal complex. This is in the form of lateral elements between the chromosomes and a center element that acts as a zipper and fuses them together. There are certain conditions where the synaptonemal complex but physical exchange of chromosomal sections occurs (crossing over)
     there are 2 pairs of sister chromatids at the zygotene phase.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The life cycles of plant species alternate between two generations
    Haploid, which is termed the gametophyte
    Diploid, which is termed the sporophyte
    Meiosis produces haploid cells called spores
    Spores divide by mitosis to produce the gametophyte
    Alternate between gametophyte and sporeophyte
    Gametophyte (haploid)
    Sporophyte (diploid)
    Alternation of generation plant have huge sporophyte and tiny gametophytes
    Angiosperm - plant that produces flowers and seeds
    - spermatogenesis takes place in the anther
    - they hold the pollen grains
    -
    Meosis
    Creates 4 microspores
    They undergo mitosis
    You end up with 8 cells.
    There is a tube cell and a generative cell (which will under go mitosis and create 2 sperm cells after the pollen grain falls on the stigma nuclei)
    The tube and generative cell have a thick cell wall that creates the pollen grain
    Female 
    Megasporocyte undergoes meiosis  creates 4 megaspores but 3 degenerate
    The megaspore will undergo 3 rounds of mitotic division with asymmetrical cytokenisis  this leads to 7 cells instead of the expected 8
    Only 7 rounds of cytokenesis
    1 central cell with 2 haploid nuclei, then you have 3 antipodal cells and 2 synergid cells. This all results from the 3 mitotic divisions.
    1 cell does not undergo cytokenesis  you have 2 haploid nuclei in 1 central cell. This is called the endosperm (provides nutrition)
    Once the pollen grain falls on the stigma, the tube cell crates the pollen tube, the sperm will fertilize the egg and one will fertilize the central cell. This creates a zygote and an ensodsperm. The first fertilization is btw the egg and sperm
    Ovary = seed
  2. areas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.
  3. 1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole
  4. For a diploid organism with 6 chromosomes, mitosis begins with 12 chromatids joined as 6 pairs of suster chromatids
    Meiosis 2 begins w/ 6 chromatids joined as 3 pairs of sister chromatids
    THERE IS NO S PHASE
    Already in the form of sister chromatids

    PROMETAPHSE- each pair of S chromatid is connected to either pole.
    Then we have metaphase - a single row of very differenlt looking s. chromatids.
    Anaphase - each pair of s. chromatids becomes a chromosome
    Telophase 2, cytokensis
    Results in 4 cells as 2 rounds of meiodid
    In the book it says 4 daughter cells, but cells from meiosis are NOT DAUGHTER CELLS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL. They are gametes.
  5. One purpose of cell division is asexual reproduction
    A second important reason for cell division is multicellularity
    Plants, animals and certain fungi are derived from a single cell that has undergone repeated cell divisions
    For example
    Humans start out as a single fertilized egg
    End up as an adult with several trillion cells

5 True/False questions

  1. Haploid dominant speciesspends most of its life in its haploid state
    Fungi

          

  2. meiosissubdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase

          

  3. G2 phasethe cell accumulates the materials that are necessary for nuclear and cell division

          

  4. anaphaseThe connection holding the sister chromatids together is broken
    Each chromatid, now an individual chromosome, is linked to only one pole
    As anaphase proceeds
    Kinetochore MTs shorten
    Chromosomes move to opposite poles
    Polar MTs lengthen
    Poles themselves move further away from each other
    The kinetochore microtubulues de polymerize (shorten), the centromeres are then under a lot of tension and split. This divides each pair into individual chromosomes.46 pairs of sister chromatids = 46 individual chromosomes
    2 bunches of chromosomes

          

  5. M phasewhere chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids

          

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