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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. prophase I meiosis
  2. Kinetochore microtubulue
  3. oogenisis
  4. Haploid dominant species
  5. mitosis vs meiosis
  1. a come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage
  2. b The production of egg cells

    In female animals, it occurs in the ovaries

    Early in development, diploid oogonia produce diploid primary oocytes
    In humans, for example, about 1 million primary occytes per ovary are produced before birth

    Takes place in the ovaries
    Start with the oogonia (2n)  undergoes mitosis and creates primary oocytes (Diploid)
    These enter into meiotic 1 division. The division is stalled at prophase 1
    It waits under the female is sexually mature to proceed to the rest of the stages

    The primary oocytes initiate meiosis I
    However, they enter into a dormant phase
    They are arrested in Prophase I until the female becomes sexually mature
    At puberty, primary oocytes are periodically activated to progress through meiosis I
    In humans, one oocyte per month is activated
    The division in meiosis I is asymmetric producing two haploid cells of unequal size
    A large secondary oocyte oocyte
    A small polar body

    The secondary oocyte enters meiosis II but is quickly arrested in it
    It is released into the oviduct
    An event called ovulation
    If the secondary oocyte is fertilized
    The haploid egg and sperm nuclei then fuse to created the diploid nucleus of a new individual
    During the 1st meiotic division, it is not symmetrical.
    1 secondary oocyte (Very large)
    1 polar body ( will sometimes undergo 2nd meiotic division and sometimes it wont)
    Can have 1 egg cell and 1 polar body or 1 egg cell or 3 polar bodies
  3. c Prophase I  most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:
    3) PACHYTENE:
    4) DIPLOTENE:
    5) DIAKINESIS:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.
  4. d Mitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.
  5. e spends most of its life in its haploid state
    Fungi

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. a cell prepares to divide
    The cell reaches a restriction point and is committed on a pathway to cell division
  2. Meiosis begins after a cell has progressed through interphase of the cell cycle - gametocyte
    Meiosis involves two successive divisions
    These are termed meiosis 1 and 2
    Each of these is subdivided into
    Prophase
    Prometaphase
    Metaphase
    Anaphase
    Telophase

    Prophase I is further subdividd into periods known as
    Leptotene
    Zygotene
    Pachytene
    Diplotene
    Diaknesis

    NO S PHASE - b/c you do not need another round of synthetic phase
  3. For a diploid organism with 6 chromosomes, mitosis begins with 12 chromatids joined as 6 pairs of suster chromatids
    Meiosis 2 begins w/ 6 chromatids joined as 3 pairs of sister chromatids
    THERE IS NO S PHASE
    Already in the form of sister chromatids

    PROMETAPHSE- each pair of S chromatid is connected to either pole.
    Then we have metaphase - a single row of very differenlt looking s. chromatids.
    Anaphase - each pair of s. chromatids becomes a chromosome
    Telophase 2, cytokensis
    Results in 4 cells as 2 rounds of meiodid
    In the book it says 4 daughter cells, but cells from meiosis are NOT DAUGHTER CELLS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL. They are gametes.
  4. Most eukaryotic species are diploid
    Have two sets of chromosomes
    Members of a pair of chromosomes are called homologues
    The two homologues form a homologous pair
  5. 1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole

5 True/False Questions

  1. ZYGOTENEareas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.

          

  2. kinetochorebound to the centromere of each individual chromosome

          

  3. homologous pairAre nearly identical in size
    Have the same banding pattern and centromere location
    Have the same genes
    But not necessarily the same alleles

          

  4. SpermatogenesisThe production of egg cells

    In female animals, it occurs in the ovaries

    Early in development, diploid oogonia produce diploid primary oocytes
    In humans, for example, about 1 million primary occytes per ovary are produced before birth

    Takes place in the ovaries
    Start with the oogonia (2n)  undergoes mitosis and creates primary oocytes (Diploid)
    These enter into meiotic 1 division. The division is stalled at prophase 1
    It waits under the female is sexually mature to proceed to the rest of the stages

    The primary oocytes initiate meiosis I
    However, they enter into a dormant phase
    They are arrested in Prophase I until the female becomes sexually mature
    At puberty, primary oocytes are periodically activated to progress through meiosis I
    In humans, one oocyte per month is activated
    The division in meiosis I is asymmetric producing two haploid cells of unequal size
    A large secondary oocyte oocyte
    A small polar body

    The secondary oocyte enters meiosis II but is quickly arrested in it
    It is released into the oviduct
    An event called ovulation
    If the secondary oocyte is fertilized
    The haploid egg and sperm nuclei then fuse to created the diploid nucleus of a new individual
    During the 1st meiotic division, it is not symmetrical.
    1 secondary oocyte (Very large)
    1 polar body ( will sometimes undergo 2nd meiotic division and sometimes it wont)
    Can have 1 egg cell and 1 polar body or 1 egg cell or 3 polar bodies

          

  5. sperm structureA long flagellum
    A head
    The head contains a haploid nucleus
    Capped by the acrosome

          

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