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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Kinetochore microtubulue
  2. chromosome numbers
  3. Polar micro tubulues
  4. How are homologues identified
  5. mitosis
  1. a subdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase
  2. b Size, position of centromere, and banding patterns
    They are not identical to each other
    Although we have the same genes, we have different alleles.
  3. c polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other, positioning spindle apparatus
  4. d Fruit fly - 8 total chromosomes
    Adder's tongue fern - 1262 chromosomes
  5. e come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. 1) Nuclear envelope dissociates into smaller vesicles
    2)Centrosomes separate to opposite poles
    3) The mitotic spindle apparatus is formed
    Composed of mircotubules (MTs)

    Condensation of chromosome, compaction BEGINS as prophase
    All of the euchromatic regions will become heterochromatic
    Nucleolous synthesize ribosomalRNA - as chromosomes compact, the nucleolous disappears
    Nuclear membrane is converted into vesicles
    Different microtubulues are made - spindle apparatus
    Aster microtubulues - propagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position
    Polar micro tubulues - polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other
    Kinetochore microtubulue - come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage
  2. Interphase I
    Early Prophase I
    Late Prophase I
    Prometaphase I
  3. The production of sperm
    In male animals, it occurs in the testes
    A diploid spermatogonium cell divides mitotically to produce two cells
    The primary spermatocyte progresses through meiosis I and II
    Testes undergo spermatogenesis
    Spermatogonia 2n (germ cells)
    First division that takes place to the spermatogonia creates 1 cell that is a spermatogonia and the other is a primary spermatocyte
    The primary spermatocyte is the first one that undergoes meiosis
  4. bound to the centromere of each individual chromosome
  5. b/c all of our somatic cells are diploid mitosis dominates
    Each type of chromosome has 2 copies, 1 maternal homologue and 1 paternal homologue
    Homologous pair

5 True/False questions

  1. acrosomehaploid sperm nucleus in hea


  2. LEPTOTENEareas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.


  3. DIAKINESISThe production of egg cells

    In female animals, it occurs in the ovaries

    Early in development, diploid oogonia produce diploid primary oocytes
    In humans, for example, about 1 million primary occytes per ovary are produced before birth

    Takes place in the ovaries
    Start with the oogonia (2n)  undergoes mitosis and creates primary oocytes (Diploid)
    These enter into meiotic 1 division. The division is stalled at prophase 1
    It waits under the female is sexually mature to proceed to the rest of the stages

    The primary oocytes initiate meiosis I
    However, they enter into a dormant phase
    They are arrested in Prophase I until the female becomes sexually mature
    At puberty, primary oocytes are periodically activated to progress through meiosis I
    In humans, one oocyte per month is activated
    The division in meiosis I is asymmetric producing two haploid cells of unequal size
    A large secondary oocyte oocyte
    A small polar body

    The secondary oocyte enters meiosis II but is quickly arrested in it
    It is released into the oviduct
    An event called ovulation
    If the secondary oocyte is fertilized
    The haploid egg and sperm nuclei then fuse to created the diploid nucleus of a new individual
    During the 1st meiotic division, it is not symmetrical.
    1 secondary oocyte (Very large)
    1 polar body ( will sometimes undergo 2nd meiotic division and sometimes it wont)
    Can have 1 egg cell and 1 polar body or 1 egg cell or 3 polar bodies


  4. prophase I meiosisProphase I  most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.


  5. ZYGOTENEcompaction of chromosome, homologous partner seek for one another (this occurs towards the end of leptotene). The first major change is compaction.


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