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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Sex Determination
  3. interphase
  4. Kinetochore microtubulue
  5. Anaphase I
  1. a In actively dividing cells, G1, S and G2 are collectively known as interphase
    A cell may remain for long periods of time in the G0 phase
    A cell in this phase has
    Either postponed making a
    decision to divide
    Or made the decision to never
    divide again
    Terminally differentiated cells
    (e.g. nerve cells)
  2. b come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage
  3. c In many animal species, chromosomes play a role in sex determinationThe sex chromosomes are designated Z and W
    Males contain two Z chromosomes
    Females have one X and one Y chromosome
    Haplo-diploid system
    Males are known as the drones
    They are haploid
    Females include the worker bees and queen bees
    They are diploid
    Xx and Xy in humans
    Xx and Xo in insects (ratio of chromosomes to autosomes, ratio of 1 = female, .5 = male)
    ZZ (male) ZW female (fish)
    Fertilization vs. parthenogenesis (ants, bees, wasps) - males are always haploid, females are diploid.
    Environmental factors that influence sex  alligators
    At a 33 degrees it is males
    Below 33 it creates females
    The two pairs of sister chromatids separarate from each other. However the connection that holds sister chromatids together does not break
    Polar MT - polymerize
    Kinetochore MT - depolarize
    Each pair for sister chromatids move towards the poles.
    You get a reduction in the number of chromosomes
    Sister chromatids reach their respective poles and decondense. The nuclear envelope reforms to produce 2 separate nuclei.
    Only 1 copy of each type of chromosome on either pole
    1 copy of each type of

    Chromosome complement looks different from the original cell.
  5. e areas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The field of genetics that involves the microscopic examination of chromosomes
    A cytogeneticist typically examines the chromosomal composition of a particular cell or organism
  2. where chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids
  3. haploid sperm nucleus in hea
  4. propagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position
  5. 1)Spindle fibers interact with the sister chromatids
    2) Kinetochore microtubules grow from the two poles
    If they make contact with a kinetochore, the sister chromatid is "captured"
    If not, the microtubule depolymerizes and retracts to the centrosome
    3)The two kinetochores on a pair of sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore MTs on opposite poles
    Functioning of spindle apparatus is complete in prometaphase
    Clasping the kinetochore proteins on either side of the sister chromatids is the most important part.
    Sister chromatids must be connected to both poles

5 True/False Questions

  1. meiosisMeiosis begins after a cell has progressed through interphase of the cell cycle - gametocyte
    Meiosis involves two successive divisions
    These are termed meiosis 1 and 2
    Each of these is subdivided into

    Prophase I is further subdividd into periods known as

    NO S PHASE - b/c you do not need another round of synthetic phase


  2. M phasemitosis


  3. kinetochore1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole


  4. Meiosis IIInterphase I
    Early Prophase I
    Late Prophase I
    Prometaphase I


  5. SpermatogenesisThe production of egg cells

    In female animals, it occurs in the ovaries

    Early in development, diploid oogonia produce diploid primary oocytes
    In humans, for example, about 1 million primary occytes per ovary are produced before birth

    Takes place in the ovaries
    Start with the oogonia (2n)  undergoes mitosis and creates primary oocytes (Diploid)
    These enter into meiotic 1 division. The division is stalled at prophase 1
    It waits under the female is sexually mature to proceed to the rest of the stages

    The primary oocytes initiate meiosis I
    However, they enter into a dormant phase
    They are arrested in Prophase I until the female becomes sexually mature
    At puberty, primary oocytes are periodically activated to progress through meiosis I
    In humans, one oocyte per month is activated
    The division in meiosis I is asymmetric producing two haploid cells of unequal size
    A large secondary oocyte oocyte
    A small polar body

    The secondary oocyte enters meiosis II but is quickly arrested in it
    It is released into the oviduct
    An event called ovulation
    If the secondary oocyte is fertilized
    The haploid egg and sperm nuclei then fuse to created the diploid nucleus of a new individual
    During the 1st meiotic division, it is not symmetrical.
    1 secondary oocyte (Very large)
    1 polar body ( will sometimes undergo 2nd meiotic division and sometimes it wont)
    Can have 1 egg cell and 1 polar body or 1 egg cell or 3 polar bodies


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