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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Fertilization in higher plants
  2. Kinetochore microtubulue
  4. M phase
  5. Purpose for division
  1. a a double fertilization

    the endosperm (which uses a large amount of plant resources) will develop only when an egg cell has been fertilized

    After fertilization is complete
    The ovule develops into a seed
    The surrounding ovary develops into a fruit
    Which encloses one or more seeds
  2. b areas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.
  3. c mitosis
  4. d come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage
  5. e One purpose of cell division is asexual reproduction
    A second important reason for cell division is multicellularity
    Plants, animals and certain fungi are derived from a single cell that has undergone repeated cell divisions
    For example
    Humans start out as a single fertilized egg
    End up as an adult with several trillion cells

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Prophase I  most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.
  2. Mitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.
  3. where chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids
  4. Size, position of centromere, and banding patterns
    They are not identical to each other
    Although we have the same genes, we have different alleles.
  5. Bivalents are organized along the metaphase plate
    Pairs of sister chromatids are aligned in a double row, rather than a single row (as in mitosis)
    The arrangement is random with regards to the (blue and red) homologues
    A pair of sister chromatids is linked to one of the poles
    And the homologous pair is linked to the opposite pole

5 True/False questions

  1. Diploid dominant speciesspends most of its life in its haploid state


  2. Aster microtubuluespolymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other, positioning spindle apparatus


  3. prometaphase1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole


  4. SpermatogenesisThe production of sperm
    In male animals, it occurs in the testes
    A diploid spermatogonium cell divides mitotically to produce two cells
    The primary spermatocyte progresses through meiosis I and II
    Testes undergo spermatogenesis
    Spermatogonia 2n (germ cells)
    First division that takes place to the spermatogonia creates 1 cell that is a spermatogonia and the other is a primary spermatocyte
    The primary spermatocyte is the first one that undergoes meiosis


  5. PACHYTENEthey have found their partners and come close together. Then, proteins are deposited which create the synaptonemal complex. This is in the form of lateral elements between the chromosomes and a center element that acts as a zipper and fuses them together. There are certain conditions where the synaptonemal complex but physical exchange of chromosomal sections occurs (crossing over)
     there are 2 pairs of sister chromatids at the zygotene phase.


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