Franco-Prussian War of 1871
Prussia became the most powerful nation on the continent of Europe. France detested Germany.
The First Moroccan Crisis of 1905
Wilhelm II wanted to test the strength of the Entente Cordiale so he held a meeting where Britain recognized Morocco.
The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909
Russian Izvolsky and Austrian Aehrenthal come up with an agreement: Russia would allow Austria to annex Bosnia IFF Austria helped Russia open up the Black Sea from the Ottoman Turks. The Serbs were furious but Russia refused to help. Austria betrayed Russia. Russia was humiliated.
The Second Moroccan Crisis of 1911
France sent troops into Moroccan Fez to crush uprising. Germany sent the gunboat Panther to frighten the French. France gave up half the French Congo to Germany.
The Balkan Wars of 1912-1913
Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece launch an anti-Turkish crusade on the Ottoman Empire. Bulgaria took land up to the Adriatic, causing the protest of Austria and Italy. Treaty of London.
The Second Balkan War of 1913
Serbia and Greece join forces to attack Bulgaria. Treaty of Bucharest.
Sarajevo Assassination 1914
Franz Ferdinand, nephew and heir to Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria, is assassinated in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip (a member of the Black Hand), a Serbian terrorist group. Franz Joseph demanded and Ultimatum. Serbia refused. Germany gave Austria-Hungary full support.
WWI Schlieffen Plan
Germany had to fight two fronts. A small force would hold back Russia while a large force would travel through Belgium, encircle Paris, and destroy the French war effort in a lightning strike. General Moltke modified the plan, allowing French General Joffre to regroup the French army at the Marne.
<<Breakfast in Paris, Dinner in St. Petersburg>>
WWI Battle of the Marne 1914
Paris is saved from the Germans. Germans retreat and dig trenches from the North Sea to Switzerland.
WWI Battle of Verdun 1916
Germany tried to break through to Paris. French General Petain: <<They Shall Not Pass!>> 300,000 casualties on each side. Paris saved.
WWI Battle of the Somme 1916
Anglo-French forces attack but gain nothing.
WWI Eastern Front 1914
Hindenburg and Ludendorf crush Russian forces at Tannenburg. Russia lost 1 million troops and all of Poland and Lithuania. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
WWI Ottoman Empire 1914
The Turks entered the war on Germany's side. Turks prevented the British from supplying Russia with supplies.
WWI Japan 1914
Japan declared war on Germany, conquered German territory in China, then left the war.
WWI Gallipoli Campaign 1915
A British attempt to relieve pressure on Russia. Attack the Dardenelles and seize Constantinople. A complete failure.
WWI Colonel Lawrence (of Arabia)
British Colonel Lawrence sent to convince the Arabs to rise against the Ottomans to put pressure on the Turks.
WWI Lusitania and Blockade 1915
Germany blockaded Great Britain with Underwasser Boot. American Lusitania sunk by Germany.
WWI Sussex 1916
Germany sank American Sussex. Germany did not want the US to join WWI so they gave up U-Boot warfare.
WWI Zimmerman Telegram 1917
German Secretary of Foreign Affairs Arthur Zimmerman telegrammed German Minister in Mexico City to convince Mexico to declare war on US in return for lost territories (Texas, N Mexico, Arizona, Oregon, NOT CA). Telegram intercepted by Britain and passes to US papers. US enters WWI in 1917.
WWI Last Offensive 1918
Germany launches a major offensive to crush Britain and France before America arrived. Fock and Blackjack Pershing stopped Germany.
WWI Armistice November 1918
WWI ended at 11th hour of 11th day of 11th month 1918.
Bloody Sunday 1905
Father Gapon lead a peaceful protest in front of the winter palace of the Tzar. Army fired upon crowd.
End of 1914
4 million Russian soldiers killed, wounded, of POW.
Defeat at Tannenburg 1914
Tzar Nicholas II leaves to Eastern front to boost morale. He left Alexandra in charge. Rasputin influenced her. Rasputin killed in 1916.
Bread Riots 1917
Troops refused to fire on rebels.
Petrograd Soviet 1917
Radical members of the Duma met to form the Petrograd Soviet (Workers' Council)
Prince Lvov 1917
Duma demanded abdication of Tzar Nicholas II and set up a provisional government under Prinve Lvov. Biggest mistake is continue the war.
Return of Bolsheviks 1917
Stalin, Lenin, and Trotsky return from exile. Lenin promises <<Peace, Bread, and Land!>> Bolsheviks struggle to gain control of Petrograd Soviet.
Kornilov Rebellion 1917
Prince Lvov fired, Alexander Kerensky put in power. General Kornilov tries to overthrow Kerensky and restore order in Petrograd. Bolsheviks aid Petrograd Soviet to defeat Kornilov. Kerensky forced to rely upon Bosheviks.
November 6-7 1917
Bolsheviks gain control of Petrograd at night.
Bosheviks form CHEKA: a secret police force
Red Army 1918
Trotsky commands the Red Army
Bolsheviks change name to Communist Party
War Communism 1918
Communists confiscate all private banks, all property of church, nationalized banks, created state controlled labor unions and compulsory labor. Land distributed among peasants.
Red Terror of 1918-1920
Used Terror to enforce internal unity. Far more severe than Jacobin terror of 1793
Kronstadt Uprising 1921
Sailors at Kronstadt object domination of Soviets. They were branded as petty bourgeois and shot down by the thousands.
Party Struggle 1924
Lenin dies and Leon Trotsky competes with Josef Stalin for power.
Trotsky: Wanted a more radical program. Condemned NEP and demanded complete socialization of entire economy
Stalin: wanted to develop USSR.
Trotsky expelled from party. Stalin assassinated him in Mexico 1940.
Stalin Purges of 1930's
Stalin expelled or killed 1/3 of the Communist Party and 90% of his generals because he thought they were a threat to his power.