Mass Media final
|A trio of corporate tactics used against media||1) Corporations created intellectual think tanks to counter academic studies damaging their corporations.|
2) Corporate leaders invoked the American belief (a belief that was itself created by media) that to criticize big business is to attack American democracy.
3) The corporate attack characterized journalists as a class of careless "economic illiterates" who are biased against business.
|Reasons people follow news|| 1) Curriosity and surveillance|
2) Entertanment and escape
3) Social and psychological development
4) Learned behavior
|Types of News|| 1)Fully Controlled (released news, pseudo-event)|
2)Partially Controlled (press conference, etc.)
3) Uncontrolled (ex. Watergate, Daniel Ellsberg, Iraq prisoner abuse photos)
|supporters of going to war||are more likely to hold the most misconceptions.|
|Differnece between FOX news and PBS/NPR listeners||fox has the most misconceptions, pbs/npr has the fewest.|
|Hegemony||predominance or the preponderant influence of one state over another. A ruling or elite class dominates at the level of ideas, thus undermining any consciousness of change|
|concision||Noam Chomsky's concept describing how mainstream media content is structured so that it forces those with dissenting voices to limit scope of answers to brief thoughts and soundbites that fit easily between two TV ads|
|Chompsky on Thought Control in a Democratic Society||1.) Propaganda is to democracy what violence is to a dictatorship.|
2) Ordinary people have remarkable creativity.
3) People have a fundamental need for creative work, which is not being met in systems where people are like cogs in a machine.
4) What would make more sense as a way to govern is a form of rationalist-libertarian socialism -- not one that increasingly functions without public input. Chomsky advocates a system where a community and its members run things in a democratic fashion and whose people do not function as some sort of wage slaves.
5) People need to be able to detect forms of authority and coercion and challenge those that are not legitimate.
6) The major form of authority that needs challenging is the system of private control over public resources.
7) The First Amendment means that democracy requires free access to ideas and opinions.
8) Democracy in America is not functioning in an ideal sense but more in the sense that Lippmann noted in Public Opinion (where a specialized class of about 20 percent of the people -- but who are also a target of progaganda -- manages democratic functioning) and, in effect, are under control of a power elite, who more or less own the institutions. The masses of people (80 percent) are marginalized, diverted and controlled by what he calls Necessary Illusions.
9) Manufacturing consent is related to the understanding that indoctrination is the essence of propaganda
|When media news coverage of issues are bias in favor the status quo, these are the results||1. ownership of media is held by major corporations with interests and goals similar to power elite elements of society|
2. people with different views, "dissenting voices," are not heard much
3. the breadth of debate is limited
4. the official stance and institutional memory prevail and become history
5. people's interest and attention are often diverted away from issues about which they could become concerned
|Necessary Illusions||make certain the masses of the populace won't become curious and involved in the political process and will continue submitting to the "civil rule" of the power elite.|
|What does the indoctrination of the political class and diversion of the masses make up?||the essence of the democracy practiced in the U.S|
|citizens must take 2 actions to break free|| 1. They must seek out information from ALTERNATIVE MEDIA (media outside the mainstream and usually having a particular point of view)|
2. they must move toward change by becoming engaged in community action -- because people can use their ordinary intelligence to make changes in their lives and communities. Grassroots movements begin there
|COMMUNITY INTERESTS||action groups with others with parallel interests and values, not in isolation, which is where the present system tends to keep people|
|2 POSSIBILITIES EXIST regarding America's future and the future for a global community held hostage:|| 1. The general population will take control of its own destiny|
2. Or -- there will be no destiny to control.
|Eight techniques used by Fox News|| 1. Shut up|
2. Polling & graphics (U.S flag+"fair and balanced"
3.News, commentary & ad libs
4. "Some people say"
5. Use of experts
6. Operation character assassination
7. Fox liberals (weak/unknown)
8. Guests (mainly conservatives)
|Appropriation||Using someones name/likeness for comercial gain|
|Intrusion||intruding on someones privacy either with a camera/video ect.|
|Licensing||tv/radio/newspapers need a license. These make the rules (such as no swearing)|
|Seditious libel||The crime of openly criticizing a public official|
|Prior restraint||Censorship imposed before a speech is made or a newspaper is published; usually presumed to be unconstitutional.|
|Obscenity||publicly offensive language or portrayals with no redeeming social value|
|Libel||when a law suit comes forward about reputation being damaged|
|Invasion of privacy||similar to libel but can also be truthful|
|Why is socialization in media damaging?||has produced chaos and crisis across the United States because of media power to sustain myths about national policies|
|BAGDIKIAN REMEDIES|| THE ANSWER LIES IN ACTIVISM, PROTESTS, PETITIONS AND INVOLVEMENT OF THE YOUNG -- AS WELL AS IN VOTING.|
THE PEOPLE MUST USE THEIR POLITICAL POWER, WHICH CAN OVERCOME THE CRUDE POWER OF MAJOR CORPORATIONS
|Two main forms of commercialization of U.S. journalism|| 1. Commercial interests directly penetrate the news, thus corrupting its integrity.|
2. Journalists using their privileges to report favorably on their owner's commercial ventures and investments.
|3 main reasons exist as to journalism's importance to a democratic state|| 1. a democracy must have a rigorous watchdog of those in power and those who want to be in power|
2. a democracy must have a way to ferret out truth from lies
3. a democracy needs a way to present a wide range of informed positions on the important issues of the day
|2 fundamental ways to think about journalism and democracy||1) Democracy neeeds journalism -- the U.S. constitutional system depends on there being an informed citizenry, and the press has the responsibility to make that happen|
2) Journalism needs democracy -- if a society is democratic in name only but has widespread inequality and vast apathy and hopelessness about politics, real journalism will be hard to conduct and will gravitate toward propaganda
|2 characteristics of high-quality journalism||1. it is committed to ending information inequality and has a stake in seeing the end of social inequality -- while requiring a society committed to openness and justice in order that the society can prosper|
2) it opposes corruption and secrecy and attacks on civil liberties -- but it also has a stake in lessening militarism.
|edia reform in isolation from other reforms in society is not enough -- for two reasons|| 1. America needs a very politically engaged democracy.|
2. Media and communication systems can merely help citizens achieve society's goals of social justice and human happiness.
|Meiklejohn thoughts on the First Amendment||if the First Amendment gave commercial speech the same weight as political speech, the First Amendment would "lose its integrity and soon become primarily a tool for commercial interests who had no particular interest whatsoever in politics and public life|
|2 Meiklejohnian solutions to the crisis of democracy||1) Most radical, almost entirely eliminate commercial media, and create a large, nonprofit, noncommercial media system accountable to the public|
2) Less radical, accept the existence of corporate media giants, regulate the broadcasters, and tax media giants or use public funds to establish another viable nonprofit and noncommercial media system that can service the needs of citizens who are not able to own media corporations.
|3 reasons why there is little debate in America about how media are structured||1) the inability to publicly debate the capitalist basis of the media is a function of a general inability to criticize capitalism itself in our culture|
2) the corporate media have actively cultivated -- with lots of success -- the ideology that the status quo is the only reasonable media structure for a freedom-loving, democratic society
3) the nature of media corporations themselves -- with political and economic muscle that all corporations have -- in their control over the flow of information