Number of years an individual will probably live, based on the average for other with similar characteristics
What was the life expectancy in the United States in the beginning of the twentieth century
What's today average life expectancy in the United States
Infant mortality rate
This is refers to the number of deaths before the first year of life
According to Health people 2010, what are two goals for the population during the next 10 years
improving the length and quality of life and eliminating the health disparities and inequities in certain groups of he population
10 health indicators according to Health People 2010
Physical exercise, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance abuse, responsible sexual behavior, mental health, injury and violence, poor environmental quality, immunization, access to health care
Beginning of pregnancy
Birth to 1 years
1 to 3 years
3 to 5 years
6 to 12 years
13 to 19 years
20 to 40 years
40 to 65 years
65 years and over
Increase in the size of an organism or any of its parts
Function and the gradual process of change and differentiation, from simple to complex
Defined as growth and development that proceeds from the head toward the feet
Threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell that function in the transmission of genetic information
Cell formed by the union of two reproductive cells; the fertilized ovum resulting from the union of a sperm and ovum from the time it is fertilized until, as a blastocyst, it is implanted in the uterus
How many pairs of chromosomes there is
Substance, agent, or process that interferes with normal prenatal development, causing the formation of one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus
Type of family consisting of parents and their biologic offspring
Type of family consist of nuclear plus additional family members living in same household
Single parent family
Type of family group that occurs when one parent leaves the nuclear family because of divorce, separation, desertion, or death
Type of family group occurs when adults from previous marriage remarry and combine children with new household
Social contract and cohabitation family
Family made up of man and woman living together without legal commitment but sharing roles and responsibilities
Family involves homosexual partners living together with shared responsbilities
Family consists of usually traditional nuclear-family members, husband, wife, and adoptive child
Family responsible for care, supervision, and nurturing of children in their charge
Autocratic family pattern
Family unit with unequal relationships; parents attempt to control with strict, rigid rules and expectations
Patriarchal family pattern
A family style in which the male assumes the dominant role
Matriarchal family pattern
A style in which the female assumes primary dominance in areas of child care and homemaking; also known as matrilocal
Democratic family pattern
Family style in which the adult members are considered equal and children are treated with respect and recognized as individuals
Engagement or commitment stage
Period when the couple prepares for marriage and becomes free of parental domination
Period in a couple's life between their wedding and the birth of their first child
The period of family life that begins when conception occurs and continues through the pregnancy
an arrangement between an infertile couple and a woman who agrees to carry their child to term
Begins at the birth or adoption of the first child
Period of family life when the grown children depart from the home. In some family units this stage is brief because the adult children return to live in the family home
The last stage of the life cycle that requires the older adult to cope with a long range of changes
Basic trust vs. mistrust
Development task infancy develop
Autonomy vs shame and doubt
Development task toddler develop
Initiative vs guilt
Development task preschool develop
Industry vs inferiority
Development task school age develop
Identity vs role confusion
Development task adolescence develop
Intimacy vs isolation
Development task young adulthood develop
Generativity vs stagnation
Development task Middle adulthood develop
Ego integrity vs despair
Development task late adulthood develop
Process of systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because of their advanced age
Concrete operational phase
Phase of Piaget's theory in which thoughts become increasingly logical and coherent so that the child is able to classify, sort, and organize facts while still being incapable of generalizing or dealing with abstractions; occurs between 7 and 10 years of age.
A mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, and hopelessness
Formal operational thought stage
Piaget's phase that begins during adolescence, permitting abstract reasoning and systematic scientific problem solving
Preoperational thought stage
Piaget's phase of child development during the period of 2 to 7 years of age, when the child focuses on the use of language as a tool. The child has the emerging ability to reason
a normal loss of hearing acuity speech, intelligibility, auditory threshold, and pitch associated with aging
Defect in vision in advancing age involving loss of accommodation or recession of near vision; due to loss of elasticity of crystalline lens
Growth and development that moves from the center toward the outside. Infant gains control of the shoulders before developing control of the hands and fingers.
Innate knowledge structure that allows a child to organize his or her mind.
Anything that physically or psychologically injures schoolchildren or damages school property.
The developmental phase of childhood encompassing the period from birth to 2 years of age, according to Piaget's psychology. In this stage, an infant's knowledge of the work comes about primarily through sensory impressions and motor activities.
Females outlive males by an average of how many years
5% to 25%
What is the percentage unfavorable outcomes in all pregnancies are attributed to smoking
What is a basic unit of society
Who was a psychoanalyst who viewed the life cycle as a series of developmental stages?
Who was a theorist who developed the stages of cognitive development?
When does the ability of the brain to sort out basic sounds and to extract from sentences the most meaningful elements become apparent?
How many pounds per month is an infant expected to gain per month until 5 months of age
By 4-6 months, the infants weight will
Triple (average weight is 21.5 pounds)
By 7-12 months the infants weight will
For the first 6 months, how many inch the height will increase
one-word sentences that covey a complete message
6 year old need about how many sleep
12 year old child need how many of sleep
Recognizing the behavioral tendencies that have the potential to lead to violence or other problem behavior
What is the first step in prevent a tragedy
The period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins
Organ related to reproduction
What is the primary changes of puberty
Body and physical change
What is the secondary sexual changes
Average rate 70 beats per minute, respiratory rate averages 20 breaths per minute. BP is 120/70
What is the vital signs for Adolescence adult
Calcium, iron, and zinc
The adolescent diet is most likely to be deficient in
16 to 17 years of age
Females usually reach their maximum height at what years of age?
18 to 20 years of age
Males sometimes continue to grow until what age?
20 years of age
Visual acuity is keenest at about what age
40 years of age
Visual begin to decline until what age?
What's the percentage of Americans marry at some point in their lives.
7 to 9 hours of sleep
How many hours of sleep does early adulthood able to function well?
20 years of age
Recommend monthly breast self-examinations for women
between ages 35-40 years of age
Recommend baseline mammogram for women
40 years of age
At what age men should obtain a yearly physical examination including a digital rectal examination.
50 years of age
At what age men should examine for prostate-specific antigen.
Hormone replacement therapy
Way to reduce osteoporosis and the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease
Stroke, enometrial cancer, and breast disease, as well as riase blood pressure
Hormone replacement therapy may increase
What is the percentage of Americans over the age of 20 are overweight or obese?
1,000 - 2,000 mg
Premenopausal women need to obtain how many dietary calcium per day
How many countries currently have a life expectancy greater than that of the United States.
How many years longer a household income of greater than $25,000 live up to be than those with incomes of less than $10,000
He speculated that aging was an irreversible natural event caused by a decrease in body heat.
He support Hippocrates concept and postulated that aging was a lifelong process rather than an event occurring at the end of the life span.
Leonardo da Vinci
He was the first to attempt to identify the physical changes associated with aging, performed autopsies to compare old men and young children.
Aging body losing ability to recognize self; result- immune system produces antibodies that attack self
Free radicals theory
Highly reactive cellular components derived from unstable atoms or molecules.
Age is not based on chronologic age but is determined by the amount of wear and tear we experience.
Biologic programming theory
Hereditary basis for aging, evidenced by the similarities in life expectancies in a particular family.
A natural withdrawal, or disengagement, between the individual and society.
The older person who is more active socially is more likely to adjust well to aging.
Critical factors in adjustment to old age are the coping abilities we developed previously and our ability to maintain our previous roles and activities.
An exaggeration of the thoracic curvature
Advise older adults to intake how much fluid.
According to Piaget, thinking during the first few months is primarily based on
The first socializing agent for the child is
Which type of play is most common at ages 4 and 5
Slow and consistent
Growth during the school age period is
Peak physical strength and endurance occurs during
Stage of concrete operation
According to Piaget, the child between 7 and 11years of age is in the
In the female, the onset of the postpuberty period is marked by the onset of
Preschool children need to be tested for amblyopia. This condition may lead to
African American females have a higher life expectancy today than
The infant mortality rate for African Americans is more than double then
How and why people change over time
The study of life span development is the study of
Cephalocaudal and proximodistal
Two directional terms important to understanding growth and developments are
The principles of growth and development may be summarized as follows:
-Growth and development proceed at a highly individualized rate that varies from person to person.
-Growth and development are continuous and interdepenent processes characterized by spurts of growth and periods of rest
-Growth and development proceed from the simple to the complex in a predictable sequence
-Growth and development vary for specific structures at specific times.
-Growth and development are a total process that involves the whole person. the person grows physically, socially, mentally, and emotionally.
Smoking increases the incidence of
Needs are not met
Stress sometimes results when the infant's
Separated from their mother
Toddlers often perceive stress when they are
Pressures in school or from parental expectation
School-age children sometimes feel stress from
It is important for children to know that it is all right to have
What is the basic sequence of language for a three months old
What is the normal language and speech development during first year
How many words can 18 months say
200 (300) words
How many words can 2 years old say
How many words can a 3 years old say
How many words can a 4 - 5 years old say
8,000 - 14,000 (3,000) words
How many words can a 6 years old say
6 - 10 words per day
From age 2 to 6, the average child learns between how many word
Who advance more rapidly in language development
Earlier than the later born children
Firstborn child develop language
Bone and muscle
After 8 months, the infant weight gain includes more
50% (typical length is 30 inches)
By 12 months of ages, the infant's birth length has increased
120 beats per minute, 30 breath per minute, 90/60 mm Hg
What's the average infant vital signs
3 to 4 weeks before the appearance of the tooth
Signs of teething begin at what month
Primary Dentition Schedule:
6 months: teething begins with eruption of two lower central incisors
7 months: eruption of upper central incisors
9 months: eruption of upper lateral incisors
11 months: eruption of lower lateral incisors
12 months: approximately 6 to 8 teeth present
24 months: approximately 16 teeth present
30 months: completion of primary dentition - 20 teeth present
At what age the infant is able to hold the head up while in the prone position
At what age the infant has the ability to hold the head up steadily to a 90-degree angle while in the prone position
At what age infants are able to balance the head quite well
At what age infants able to sit up steadily without support.
8 to 15 months
Infants can stand with support and begin to walk about what months
1 to 4 months
At what age infant follows objects visually with the eyes and auditorily with the ears.
What months infants are able to identify the voices of the most familiar people in their life
4 to 6 months of age
Breast milk or formula is the only food most babies will need until what months
Rules for introducing solid foods
-Introduce only one new food at a time, allowing several days between new foods
-Introduce cereals first, fruits and vegetables next, and meats last
-Avoid mixing foods to allow the infant to develop interest in different foods and tastes
8 to 9 months
At what months infants master eating mashed or junior foods
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
This is also known as crib death. It's a sudden, abrupt death with no identifiable warning signs and it appears to peak 2 to 3 months after birth.
Play style during infancy is
12 to 15 months
The chubby look of infancy is gone by what months
Pulse rate 90-120 beats per minute, respiration 20-30 breaths per minute, BP is 80-100/64 mm Hg
Vital signs for toddler
Toddlers motor skills
Gross motor skill including walking, climbing stairs (2 years), and hopping (3 years). Fine motor skills such as scribble (2 years) and copying a circle (3 years).
18 to 24 months of age
At what months children begin toilet training
With newfound skills of independence, walking, talking, self-feeding, and beginning toilet training, the toddler is struggling to be
Ritualistic behavior and repetitive rituals are self-consoling behaviors found in what stage
Ignored unless the child is in danger of harm
Temper tantrums are common and are the result of frustration, this type of negativism is best to
-uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world; this period begins with reflexes
-begins to interact with environment
-learns that an object still exists when it is out of sight
-develops thinking and goal-directed behavior
-develops egocentric thinking
-uses trial and error to discover new traits and characteristics
-conceptualizes time in present terms only
-uses symbols to represent objects
-develops more logical, intuitive thinking
-centers or focuses on a single aspect of an object, producing some distortion of reality
-gains in imaginative ability
-gradually begins to "de-center"
Concrete operational thought
-understands and applies logical operations or principles to help interpret specific experiences or perceptions
-has more realistic views
-improves use of memory
-focuses on more than one task
-recognizes cause-and-effect relationships
-learns to identify behavior outcome
-understands basic ideas of conversation, number classification
Formal operation thought
-uses a systematic, scientific problem-solving approach
-recognizes past, present, and future
-is able to think about abstractions and hypothetic concepts and is able to move in thought "from the real to the possible"
-becomes more interested in ethics, politics, and all social and moral issues as ability to take a broader and more theoretic approach to experience increases.
1 tablespoon for each year of age
What is a general guideline for serving solid food for toddlers
How much milk a day toddler need to consume
12 hours of sleep at night plus a daytime nap
How much hours a toddler need to sleep.
A toddler's play style in consider to be called
Less than 5 pounds per year
Preschool weight gain is
2 to 2.5 inches per year
Preschool linear growth is about
Double the birth length
The height of the 4 years old is usually
Heart rate is 70-110 per minute, respiratory rate is 23 breath per minute, BP 110/60 mm Hg, temp 97 - 99F
Vital sign for preschool
11 to 12 hours
How many hours of sleep preschoolers need
2 inches and 4.5 to 6.5 pounds
From ages 6 to 12, height and weight increase by
Pulse rate is 55-90 per minute, respiratory rate is 22-24 per minute, BP is 110/65 mm Hg
Vital sign for School age
10-12 years old
At what age the child has the fine motor skills and begins piano, violin, or guitar lesson
Adolescence body characteristic
Females grow 2 to 8 inches, males grow 4 to 12 inches. Females gain 15 to 55 pounds, males gain 15 to 65 pounds. Men average 50% muscle and 16% fat, women average 40% muscle and 27% fat. Female needs as much as 2600 calories per day, males need as much as 3600 calories per day.