Psychology Chapter 9

60 terms by melissa_hartl

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Can see objects about one foot away

A newborn

Can see the object and distinguish its color.

Baby Suzanna is two months old. Her mom places a red block one foot in front of her. Suzanna most likely

Four

At one year, a baby's visual sensitivity is _____ times greater than it was at birth.

1. Discriminate between a picture of a flower and a real flower.
2. See his mother's face when she is holding him
3. Discriminate between a blue rattle and a pink rattle

Five month old Derek is now able to

Expand rapidly after birth

Visual abilities in infants

Attachment

Building on pioneering work with nonhumans such as Lorenz's and Harlow's, developmental psychologists have suggested that human _____ grows through responsiveness of infants' caregivers to the signals that babies provide, such as, crying, smiling, reaching, and clinging.

Securely Attached

Tina, a 1-year-old infant, employs her mother as a kind of home base, exploring independently but returning to her occasionally. When her mother leaves, she exhibits distress, and she goes to her mother when she returns. Tina is

Autocratic

Which of the following is not one of Diana Baumrind's four main categories describing different parenting styles?

Sensitive, nurturing caregivers

In Erikson's developmental stage, trust vs. mistrust, a child's basic needs are met by

Identity vs. Role confusion

Which of the following stages applies to the teenage years (ages 12-20)?

Integrity vs. Despair

Erikson said that individuals look back on their lives and this retrospective glance can be either positive or negative. This stage is known as

Independence

As opposed to forming trust and attachment in infancy, children need ____ to grow emotionally in early childhood (18mos-3years)

Increasing competency in all areas (e.g., social interactions or academic skills)

Erikson suggests that passage through each of the psychosexual stages necessitates resolution of a crisis or conflict. Although each crisis is never resolved entirely—life becomes increasingly complicated as we grow older—it needs to be resolved sufficiently to equip us to deal with demands made during the following stage of development. The fourth stage, the industry-versus-inferiority stage (ages 6 to 12), is characterized by:

Develops in stages

Piaget believe that a child's ability to think

Egocentrism

Three-year-old Leo and his mother are shopping for his father's birthday gift. When Leo is asked what he thinks his father would like, Leo responds, "A choo-choo train!" Leo is demonstrating which of Piaget's concepts?

Object permanence

When Sadie's favorite toy doll is covered up with a blanket, Sadie begins to cry, because she thinks it has disappeared. Sadie lacks __________

Conservation

A child masters ________ when she understands that an object retains its quantity even if its appearance changes.

Preoperational

The __________ stage of development is marked by egocentric thought and a lack of conservation.

Object permanence

Tamara was playing "roll the ball" with her father, who rolled the ball past Tamara and it went into the next room. Immediately Tamara went searching for it. This indicates that she understands:

The secretion of various hormones

The physical changes that occur at the start of adolescence are triggered by ________________, and it affects virtually every aspect of the adolescent's life.

Being given more responsibility than their maturity level can handle

Late physical maturation may produce certain psychological difficulties for both boys and girls. Which is not one of these?

25

Scientists have found the region of the brain that inhibits risky behavior isn't fully formed until

resisting the distractions that might interfere with good driving.

A 16 year old inherently is going to have more difficulty

take greater risks when their friends are watching, but they take the same number of risks as adults when they are by themselves.

According to the research, young people consistently

requiring teens to drive SUVs for extra protection in accident.

Legislatures around the country are thinking of doing all of the following to assist teen drivers EXCEPT:

people pass through a fixed series of stages in moral reasoning, but many never reach the final stage of moral development.

Kohlberg's theory of moral development states that

Preconventional

When Billy is asked why he should not lie to his parents, he responds, "Because you will get in big trouble if you are caught lying!" Billy's response reflects the _________ stage of moral development.

Conventional

Ken believes that smoking marijuana is okay because most people find it a perfectly reasonable pastime. Ken's moral reasoning is best categorized as

Postconventional

Camilla feels that it is all right to steal a loaf of bread if it is to save a starving person's life and human life transcends the law. Camilla is most likely in the _________ stage of moral development.

Conventional

In the ________ stage of moral development, people judge the morality of an action in terms of whether it is acceptable to society or not.

Six

How many identifiable developmental constructive stages did Kohlberg claim that moral reasoning had?

pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional

Kohlberg classified moral responses into three levels:

obedience and punishment orientation

Jenny does her homework because she is afraid that if she doesn't, her parents will get angry with her and she will get in trouble. According to Kohlberg, Jenny's actions exemplify what stage of moral reasoning?

where people have strong moral reactions, but have no logical reasoning to explain their feelings

What is "moral dumbfounding"?

Gilligan

Which theorist proposed that Kohlberg's theory has a strong male bias, and thus does not adequately address the ways in which women make moral decisions?

1. he primarily used male participants
2. it pertains to moral judgments not moral behavior.
3. it applies primarily to Western society and its moral code.

Kohlberg's theory has had substantial influence on our understanding of moral development but the research support is mixed. One difficulty with the theory is that:

Stagnation

Jim is unable to contribute to his family, community, work, and society, and unwilling to assist in the development of the younger generation. Erikson would say that Jim is experiencing:

Girls; boys

__________ are more likely to attempt suicide; __________ are more likely to succeed in killing themselves.

Caucasian

Of the following ethnicities—Caucasian, African American, Asian—adolescents of which group are most likely to commit suicide?

the suicide rates of adolescents have dramatically increased.

In the past twenty years,

Perfectionism

The personality factor associated with increased suicide susceptibility in adolescents is

1. drug and alcohol problems
2. feelings of depression
3. school and family problems

Which of the following factors is associated with increased risk for suicide in adolescents?

1. depression
2. being a perfectionist
3. being prone to extreme anxiety when facing any social or academic challenges

Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that put adolescents at risk of suicide?

Entering the world of music

Jessica has finally reached adulthood and she is ready to leave her childhood home. Her entry into early adulthood will probably be marked by:

Reversibility

Janelle and Kendra were playing with two balls of clay. Kendra was molding a cake, and Janelle was making a bowl. Janelle then suggested that they get new balls of clay so they could make something different. Kendra informed her that no new clay was necessary, because the clay could be remolded to make different objects. Kendra is teaching the principle of __________ to Janelle.

Middle-aged

If Mike is struggling to achieve generativity rather than stagnation, Mike is probably

Permissive

Jack, a middle-schooler, is somewhat immature; he is "clingy" and sometimes lacks self-control. It is possible that his parents were too

A general sense of mistrust

Bonnie is 3 months old, and her parents attend only inconsistently to her needs. Sometimes they are very attentive, feeding her promptly when she cries and comforting her when she seems upset. Other times, Bonnie cries for a long time before her parents attend to her. Based on Erikson's theory, it is likely that Bonnie will develop

Egocentric thought

Megan said " It stopped raining because I wanted to go outside and play." This is an example of

Properational

Matt said " It stopped raining because I wanted to go outside and play." This indicates that Matt is in the __________ stage of cognitive development.

Scaffolding

Vygotsky's cognitive theory promotes better learning with the assistance of

Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development.

Twelve-year-old Nathaniel was having trouble solving the word problems in his math homework. However, when his dad helped him by reading the problems aloud and emphasizing the important information, Nathaniel could solve all the problems correctly. This interaction illustrates

Intimacy

Yolanda is 24. Assume that she successfully completes the identity crisis associated with her current Eriksonian stage. Which of the following is her correct developmental outcome?

Generativity

Zachary is 44. Assume that he successfully completes the identity crisis associated with his current Eriksonian stage. Which of the following is his correct developmental outcome?

Ego integrity

Andrew is 73. Assume that he successfully completes the identity crisis associated with his current Eriksonian stage. Which of the following is his correct developmental outcome?

Dr. Agnew takes a "nurture" position; Dr. Blaine, a "nature" position.

Dr. Agnew remarks that cross-culturally, rites of passage may be more common for young males than for young females, because males have higher status than do females in most cultures. Dr. Blaine counters by suggesting that rites of passage may be more common for young males than for young females, because unlike females, males do not experience the onset of menstruation, a well-defined event marking the end of childhood. How might you characterize the views of the two professors on the nature vs. nurture issue?

Stagnation

Denise is in her mid-40s; she has never married and is childless. Her job is routine, and she feels as if she hasn't really done much to contribute to society's future. In Erikson's terms, Denise is experiencing

Yes. Children do acquire some basic reasoning skills during the concrete operational period.

Some Western legal systems denote either 7 or 8 as the age at which a child attains reason. Is such a designation defensible from a Piagetian standpoint?

Children in the concrete operational stage cannot reason with hypothetical entities such as variables.

In one elementary school curriculum, mathematical variables first appear in the sixth grade. Why are they not introduced in the fourth or fifth grade?

Metacognitive ability

Two children are participating in memory research: Heather, a preschooler, and Illeana, a sixth-grader. When the children fail a recall task, the researcher asks each child what she might do to succeed at the task the next time. Heather suggests that she would simply try again; Illeana proposes that she might try to write the items down. The difference in the girls' responses most clearly illustrates an increase in _________ during childhood.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set